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The secretion of a product into a duct that carry's the product to a lumen of an organ, or the
secretion of a substance to the outer surface of the body
The secretion of a hormone into the bloodstream and is then carried to the target tissue or cell
Hormones that are released and act locally within a tissue, organ, or cell
A chemical that is released from one part of the body, but acts globally or at a distance
Adrenocorticotropin Hormone ACTH
Antidiuretic Hormone ADH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH
- Growth Hormone GH
- Growth Hormone Releasing
- Gonadotropin Releasing
- Insulin-like Growth Factors IGF's
- Luteinizing Hormone LH
- Norepinephrine NE
- Oxytocin OT
- Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH
- Prolactin PRL
Parathyroid Hormone PTH
- Thyroid Hormone TH
referred to as the
- Master Gland within
- the body and is also
- commonly known as
- the hypophysis.
also known as the Adenohypophysis and is located in
- the anterior, or front, portion of the gland. It has associated within three (3) structures of importance for
- us. The Pars distalis, pars tuberalis, and pars
- comprises the anterior lobe
- protion of the Anterior Pituitary.
- Pars distalis is not connected to the
- Hypothalamus and there for is not made of
- nerve tissue. It resembles a typical gland.
- Dispite its "disconnect" from the
- Hypothalamus, the Pars distalis actually does
- much of the hormone regulation within the
- Pituitary gland
- the Infundibulum, providing insulation and
- cushioning. It is appropriately named
- "tuberalis" because that is exactly what it
- forms around the Infundibulum, a tube. The
- final section of the Anterior Pituitary is the
- Pars intermedia.
- located between the Anterior and Posterior Pituitary and is greatly reduced, almost nonexistant in adult
- humans. In fetus' the Pars intermedia is much larger and well defined. The overall function of the Pars
- intermedia is not currently understood, espeically since it is greatly reduced in humans. What we do know
- is the function of the Pars intermedia in other animals, such as rats. In rats the Pars intermedia actually
- does serve a function and purpose which is to stimulate the release of MSH
6 hormones that are relesed from within the Hypothalamus having regulatory
Gonado-tropin Releaseing Hormone (GnRH), Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
- (GHIH), Thryotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Prolactin
- Inhibiting Hormone (PIH), and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
- . it inhibits or blocks the
- release of Growth Hormone (GH) within the Anterior Pituitary.
- blocks the release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). The
- opposite of GHIH isThyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH) which is responsible for the secretion of Thyroid
- Stimulating Hormone (TSH). TSH oversees the growth and development of the thyroid and promotes the
- release of Thyroid Hormone (TH).
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
- causes the release of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH). FSH is responsible for the growth and development of ovary and sperm
- production, while LH regulates ovulation and testosterone secretion.
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH
- allows for the release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- from within the Anterior Pituitary. ACTH promotes the growth of the adrenal coretx and the secretion of
- glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. Glucocorticoids include such hormones as cortisol which
- promotes the breakdown of fat, creation of glucose, and the increase in anti-inflammatroy response
- systems within the body.
Thryotropin Releasing Hormone
- stimulates the release of Prolactin (PRL), while Prolatic
- Inhibiting Hormone (PIH) prevents the release of PRL. PRL plays an active role in the regulation of milk
- production and testosterone secretion
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
- does just as it sounds like it should do... it causing the
- release of GH. GH stimulates tissue growth in the liver, bone, cartilage, muscles, and even fat.
- is a small, round structure located
- posteriorly to the Thalamus in the brain. It sits just about
- directly above the 3rd ventricle
- The main function of the Pineal Gland is to release
is a derivative of serotonin that helps to determine wake and sleep patterns
hormones of the posterior pituitary
- antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)- increases water retention through the kidneys
- Oxytocin (OT)supports development and proper function of the reproductive system
location of t-cell maturation and division
- also secreates
- hormones including thymopoietin, thymosin, and thymulin which all play an active role in the production and maturation of t-cells and lymp structures
The Thyroid is the largest of the Endocrine Glands, located just below the larynx in the throat and is connected by the isthmus. It secreates
TH (T4 and T3). Its job is to regulate the metabolic rate of cells throughout the body.
The Parathyroid gland is actually made up of 4 small, tiny oval structures located posteriorly on the
- Thyroid. The Parathyroid is responsible for the monitoring of Ca++, Mg++, and HPO4.
- monitors for
- drop in blood-calcium levels, and when detected it will release PTH which will increase the number of osteoclast
is superior to kidneys
composed of 2 regions-adrenal cortex-is the outer layer and the adrenal medulla- smaller internal region
here from superior to inferior in layers... 1) Zona glomerulosa, 2) Zona fasciculata, 3) Zona reticularis.
- outer most layer and is responsible for
- for the secretion of mineralocorticoids which
- aid in the regulation of electrolyte balance.
secretes glucocorticoids/cortosol belly fat
contains 4 distinnct cell types: Alpha Cells, Beta Cells, Delta Cells, and F-cells
- Alpha cells secrete glucagon, which is a hormone that increases blood-glucose levels by inhibiting the absorption of glucose
- nto the cells of the body. Beta Cells work by releasing the hormone insulin into the blood.
- Delta cells regulate both Alpha and Beta cells by secreting the hormone somatostatian.Somatostain is also known as Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone and within the pancreas inhibits both glucagon and insulin release. Finally, F cells work to inhibit GHIH (Somatostatin)