Anatomy and physiology exam1
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What are the levels of organization?
- -Subatomic particles (protons, electrons, neutrons)
- -atoms (hydrogen atom, lithium atom, etc)
- -molecule (water molecule, glucose molecule, etc)
- -macromlecule (Protein molecule, DNA molecule, etc)
- -organelle (mitochondrion, golgi apparatus, nucleus...)
- -cell (Muscle cell, nerve cell, etc)
- -tissue (simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue)
- -organ (skin, heart, kidney)
- -organ system (skeletal system, digestive system)
- -organism (human)
What is anatomy?
Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts.
What is physiology?
the study of body functions.
What is absorption?
passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
What is circulation?
movements of substances in body fluids.
what is assimilation?
Changing of absorbed substances into different chemical forms.
what is excretion?
removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.
What are the characteristics of life?
Movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, excretion.
What are the requirements for all living organisms?
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure.
What is homeostasis?
The body's maintenance of a stable internal environment. It is so important that it requires most of our metabolic energy.
What are the components of homeostasis? give examples
- 1) receptors- stimuli
- 2) a control center- body temp at 98.6 degrees F
- 3) Effectors- muscles or glands
What are the body cavities?
- Axial portion and appendicular portion.
- -cranial cavity
- -vertebral canal
- -Thoracic cavity
- -abdominopelvic cavity
- -oral cavity
- -nasal cavity
- -orbital cavities
- -middle ear cavities
What are the organ systems?
integumetary system, skeletal system, muscular sstem, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, digestive system, respiratory system, urinary system, and reproductive system.
Integumetary system (major organs and functions)
includes skin and accessory organs such as hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceaus glands. It protects underlying tissues, regulates body temp, houses sensory receptors.
Skeletal system (major organs and functions)
Bones, ligaments, and cartilages that bind bones at joints. Framework, protection, attachment for muscles. tissues in bones produce blood cells and store inorganic salts.
Muscular system (major organs and functions)
muscles. provide movement, maintain posture, body heat
Nervous system (major organs and functions)
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. Control and adjust various organ functions. nerves send signals.
Endocrine system (major organs and functions)
All glands that secrete chemical messengers (hormones). organs include: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc). Hormones alter metabolism of target cells.
Cardiovascular system (major organs and functions)
heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, and blood. Transports substances in internal environment.
Lymphatic system (major organs and functions)
lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. Transports some fluid from spaces in tissues back to blood stream and carries certain fatty substances away from digestive organs.
Digestive system (major organs and functions)
Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine. receives foods and breaks down food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed into internal environment.
Respiratory system (major organs and functions)
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Take air in and out and exchange gasses between blood and air.
Urinary system (major organs and functions)
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. removes wastes, maintains water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine.
Reproductive system (major organs and functions)
- -Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis. Produce and maintain sperm and transfer to female.
- - Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva. Produce and maintain female sex cells, receives sperm, anything to do with baby creation.
What is biochemistry?
branch of science dealing with the chemistry of living organisms.
What is an atom?
the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
What is an atomic number?
The number of protons in an atom of an element.
What is a proton?
A positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus.
What is a neutron?
an electrically neutral subatomic particle.
What is an electron?
a small negatively charged particle that encircles the nucleus of an atom.
What is an atomic weight?
The number of protons plus number of neutrons in an atom.
What is an isotope?
an atom that has different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
what is an ion?
An atom or molecule with an electrical charge.
What is an element?
a chemical substance with only one type of atom.
what is a molecule?
a particle composed of two or more joined atoms.
what is a compound?
a substance composed of two or more chemically bonded elements.
What is a molecular formula?
the abbreviation for the number of atoms of each element in a compound.
what is a molecular mass?
a number equal to the sum of atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule.
what is an ionic bond?
chemical bond formed between two ions by transfer of electrons.
what is a hydrogen bond?
A weak bond between a hydrogen atom and an atom of oxygen or nitrogen.
what is a covalent bond?
a chemical bond formed by electron sharing between atoms.
What are the different chemical reactions?
- -Decomposition- breakdown of molecules.
- -Synthesis- Building large molecules from bonding smaller ones.
- -Reactants- a chemical that takes part in a chemical reaction. a starting material.
- -Products- result of a chemical reaction.
What is an acid?
a substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen atoms. has a pH below 7
What is a base?
a substance that ionizes in water, releasing hydroxide ions or other ions that combine with hydrogen ions. has pH above 7.
What is the normal pH of blood?
What is alkalosis?
a blood pH of 7.5-7.8
what is acidosis?
a blood pH of 7.0-7.3
organic vs. inorganic
- organic- compounds have carbon and hydrogen.
- inorganic- any other chemicals. does not have carbon or hydrogen.
How does oxygen move through the body?
- 1) oxygen gas enters the internal environment through respiratory organs.
- 2) transported throughout body via blood
- 3) in cells, organelles use odygen to release energy from nutrient molecules.
- 4) energy then drives the cell's metabolic activity.
What are the four major groups of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
carbohydrates (examples, description, function)
provides much of the energy that cells require and supply marterials to build certain cell structures. includes carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. ex. sugars (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides)
Lipids (examples, description, function)
group of organic chemicals that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. vital for cells. fats supply energy for cell activity. ex. fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
Proteins (examples, description, function)
structural material, energy sources, and chemical messengers. vital for metabolism. building blocks= amino acids.
Nucleic acids (examples, description, function)
carry the instructions that control a cell's activity by encoding the amino acid sequences of protein. 2 types= RNA and DNA. ex. include atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
what are the 4 levels of structure of proteins?
- 1) Primary structure- amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain.
- 2) Secondary structure- polypeptide chain either forms a spring like coil or folds back and forth on itself or folds into other shapes.
- 3) Tertiary structure- pleated and coiled polypeptide chain of a protein molecule folds into a unique 3D structure.
- 4) Quaternary structure- 2 or more polypeptide chains may be connected to form a single protein molecule.
How many amino acids are there?
20 types of amino acids comprise proteins in organisms.
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells: bacterial, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, divide by binary fission.
Eukaryotes: Animal (plants, etc), have nucleus, contain organelles, divide by mitosis.
What are the organelles in a composite cell?
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane
what is a nucleus?
innermost and enclosed by a thin membrane. contains genetic material (DNA), which directs cell function.
what is a cytoplasm?
composed of specialized structures called cytoplasmic organelles suspended in a liquid (cytosol). Organelles divide the labor in a cell by partitioning off certain areas or providing functions.
What is a cell membrane?
outermost limit of a cell. Metabolic reactions take place on surface and harbors molecules that enable cells to communicate and interact.
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