Anatomy 2 Test 1

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Anonymous
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102702
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Anatomy 2 Test 1
Updated:
2011-09-19 00:05:29
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Anatomy
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Chapter 23, respiratory system and more
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  1. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
    Cortisol
  2. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based
    hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
    Second Messengers
  3. ________ release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
    Oxytocin
  4. _____ is inhibited by Alcohol
    ADH
  5. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
    A)a change in membrane potential
    B)an increase in enzymatic activity
    C)direct control of the nervous system
    D)the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
    C)direct control of the nervous system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
    A)the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
    B)the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
    C)the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    D)nothing: all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
    C)the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the________.
    hypophyseal portal system
  8. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
    A)binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    B)not responding to a feedback mechanism
    C)synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
    D)increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
    A)binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.
    A)peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
    B)hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
    C)G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    D)the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
    C)G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
    A)angiotensinogen
    B)estrogen
    C)epinephrine
    D)renin
    C)epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
    A)the adrenal glands
    B)bones and skeletal muscles
    C)the blood vessels
    D)the liver
    B) bones and skeletal muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which organ is responsible for synthesizing Atrial
    Natriuretic peptide?
    A)the skin
    B)the heart
    C)the kidney
    D)the spleen
    B)the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
    A) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion
    B) replace mucus in the alveoli
    C) secrete surfactant
    D) trap dust and other debris
    C) secrete surfactant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
    A) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
    B) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
    C) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.
    D) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
    A) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
    A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface
    tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
    B) the expansion of respiratory muscles
    that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall
    C) the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant
    A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
  16. Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
    A) surface tension of water
    B) cartilage rings
    C) surfactant
    D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
    B) cartilage rings
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
    A) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
    B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
    C) pressure within the pleural cavity
    D) negative pressure in the intrapleural space
    B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
    A) partial pressure gradient
    B) solubility in water
    C) the temperature
    D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule
    A) partial pressure gradient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
    A) midbrain and medulla
    B) pons and midbrain
    C) medulla and pons
    D) upper spinal cord and medulla
    C) medulla and pons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
    A) active transport
    B) filtration
    C) osmosis
    D) diffusion
    D) diffusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
    A) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin
    B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
    C) as carbonic acid in the plasma
    D) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
    B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
    A) cleansing the air
    B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
    C) warming and humidifying the air
    D) as a passageway for air movement
    B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
    A) carbon dioxide
    B) nitric oxide
    C) temperature
    D) DPG
    B) nitric oxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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