Path Cardio

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  1. What causes increased preload?
    AV-fistula, aortic regurg, mitral regurg
  2. COncentric hypertrophy of LV occurs when?
  3. Cor pulmonale?
    RVH due to pulmonary hypertension, or pulmonary vascular disease or lung disease (COPD)
  4. Pre-renal azotemia occurs under what Cardiac condition?
    Congestive Heart Failure
  5. Box car nuclei are present in what?
    hypertrophic heart cells
  6. Kerley's B lines because of pulmonary edema secondary to CHF is seen where in the lung?
    costophrenic angle
  7. What happens to BUN and creatinine in prerenal azotemia?
    increased so the ration is >20
  8. What happens to BUN and creatining in renal azotemia?
    decreased BUN so the ration < or = 15
  9. Hepatojugular reflex is present in what cardiac condition?
    Right Sided heart failure
  10. Prerenal azotemia can occur under what cardiac condition?
    Left sided, right side or congestive heart failure
  11. What is the time frame for sudden cardiac death?
    within 1 hour from the onset of chest pain
  12. What is the cause of sudden cardiac death?
    ischemia leads to arrythmias----usually V-fib
  13. atherosclerotic caused Coronary Artery Disease leading to what?
    myocardial infarct---sudden cardiac death
  14. Ischemic heart disease is caused by what?
    Coronary atherosclerosis
  15. What is the most common presentation of occlusive CAD?
    angina pectoris-75% of the lumen is obstructed
  16. Vasospasm causin ischemia to the heart is called what?
    Prinzmetal angina
  17. Angina and Subendocardial infarcts present with what type of EKG pattern?
    ST depression
  18. In term of the ST segment on an EKG, what is the difference between angina and Pinzmetal angina?
    • Angina Prinzmetal angina
    • st depression st elevation
    • sub-endocardial ischemia transmural ischemia
  19. Eccentric stenosis of a coronary bv causing ischemia to the heart is called what angina?
  20. Mi
    cardiac necrosis due to ischemia
  21. What is the cause of MI?
    coronary atherosclerosis with plaque rupture and superimposed thrombus
  22. What is the cause of a Subendocardial infarct/.
    Transmural infarct?
    low perfusing pressue as in a hypovolemia..endocardium located deep from the coronary doesnt get enough oxygen

    Occlusive thrombus blocking nutrients to heart--transmural infarct
  23. Measuring of what cardiac enzymes can detect and re-infarct?
  24. Tripheny Tetrazolium chloride stains for what?
    LDH--in an infarct-- necrotic areas are pale
  25. Mural thrombi post MI can form when?
    1st week
  26. What sites of the cardiac muscle can undergo rupture post mi?
    • ventricle free wall
    • IV septum
    • Chordae tendiane--papillary muscle--mitral insufficiency
  27. What enzyme would indicate a re-infarct?
    CK-MB 3 days after
  28. What is Dressler Syndrome?
    autoimmune fibrinous pericarditis several weeks post MI
  29. Aschoff bodies are found in what condition?
    Rheumatic Fever
  30. What are the heart effeects of RF?
    Myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis--pancarditis
  31. MacCallum plaques?
    left atrial endocardial thickening
  32. Myxomatous degeneration is responsible for what valve abnormality?
    Mitral Valve Prolapse
  33. 2 causes of aortic stenosis?>
    • age related dystrophic calcification
    • bicuspid aortic stenosis
  34. Complications of Aortic stenosis?
    • angina
    • microangiopathic anemia
    • syncope
    • CHF
  35. Liebman sack endocarditis is different from other endocarditis how?
    vegetation present on both side of the valve
  36. Collagen Vascular diseases produce what type of vegetations on heart valves?
    veroccous--present on both sides of the valve
  37. What are cachetic endocarditis?
    products of cancers, thrombi vegetate valves
  38. What organism causes vegetation on prothetic heart valves?
    coagulase negative staph. epidermidis
  39. 3 types of cardiomyopathy?
    • Dilated
    • Hypertrophic
    • Restrictive
  40. 2 drugs that cause Dilated cardiomyopathy?
    • doxorubicin
    • cocaine
  41. causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
    • pregnancy
    • hemochromatosis
    • coxackie A
    • chagas
    • wet beri beri
    • cocaine
    • etoh
  42. DIlated heart has what kind of dysfunction? systolic or diastolic?
    systolic--unable to pump
  43. cause of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    beta myosin heavy chain
  44. Endocardial fibroelastosis results in what that causes restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    thick fibroelastic tissue in the endocardium
  45. Loefflers endomyocarditis?
    fibrosis +eosinophilia
  46. What conditions can cause Restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, pompes
  47. 2 causes of Tricuspid stenosis/regurg?
    • staph aureus with IV drug abuses
    • Carcinoid syndrome
  48. Causes of myocarditis?
    • coxackie
    • echo virus
    • chagas dz
    • RF
  49. Autoimmune dz associated with myocarditis?
    • SLE
    • RA
    • Systemic scleros
    • RF
  50. Cardiac myxoma has what origin?
    Where does it normally occur?
    • mesenchymal
    • left atrium
  51. Cardiac rhabdomyoma occurs as apart of what syndrome?
    Tuberous Sclerosis
  52. What valve abnormality has fish mouth appearance?
    mitral stenosis
  53. Viral myocarditis results in what?
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Path Cardio
2011-09-19 04:29:56
Path Cardio

Path Cardio
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