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What causes increased preload?
AV-fistula, aortic regurg, mitral regurg
COncentric hypertrophy of LV occurs when?
RVH due to pulmonary hypertension, or pulmonary vascular disease or lung disease (COPD)
Pre-renal azotemia occurs under what Cardiac condition?
Congestive Heart Failure
Box car nuclei are present in what?
hypertrophic heart cells
Kerley's B lines because of pulmonary edema secondary to CHF is seen where in the lung?
What happens to BUN and creatinine in prerenal azotemia?
increased so the ration is >20
What happens to BUN and creatining in renal azotemia?
decreased BUN so the ration < or = 15
Hepatojugular reflex is present in what cardiac condition?
Right Sided heart failure
Prerenal azotemia can occur under what cardiac condition?
Left sided, right side or congestive heart failure
What is the time frame for sudden cardiac death?
within 1 hour from the onset of chest pain
What is the cause of sudden cardiac death?
ischemia leads to arrythmias----usually V-fib
atherosclerotic caused Coronary Artery Disease leading to what?
myocardial infarct---sudden cardiac death
Ischemic heart disease is caused by what?
What is the most common presentation of occlusive CAD?
angina pectoris-75% of the lumen is obstructed
Vasospasm causin ischemia to the heart is called what?
Angina and Subendocardial infarcts present with what type of EKG pattern?
In term of the ST segment on an EKG, what is the difference between angina and Pinzmetal angina?
- Angina Prinzmetal angina
- st depression st elevation
- sub-endocardial ischemia transmural ischemia
Eccentric stenosis of a coronary bv causing ischemia to the heart is called what angina?
cardiac necrosis due to ischemia
What is the cause of MI?
coronary atherosclerosis with plaque rupture and superimposed thrombus
What is the cause of a Subendocardial infarct/.
low perfusing pressue as in a hypovolemia..endocardium located deep from the coronary doesnt get enough oxygen
Occlusive thrombus blocking nutrients to heart--transmural infarct
Measuring of what cardiac enzymes can detect and re-infarct?
Tripheny Tetrazolium chloride stains for what?
LDH--in an infarct-- necrotic areas are pale
Mural thrombi post MI can form when?
What sites of the cardiac muscle can undergo rupture post mi?
- ventricle free wall
- IV septum
- Chordae tendiane--papillary muscle--mitral insufficiency
What enzyme would indicate a re-infarct?
CK-MB 3 days after
What is Dressler Syndrome?
autoimmune fibrinous pericarditis several weeks post MI
Aschoff bodies are found in what condition?
What are the heart effeects of RF?
Myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis--pancarditis
left atrial endocardial thickening
Myxomatous degeneration is responsible for what valve abnormality?
Mitral Valve Prolapse
2 causes of aortic stenosis?>
- age related dystrophic calcification
- bicuspid aortic stenosis
Complications of Aortic stenosis?
- microangiopathic anemia
Liebman sack endocarditis is different from other endocarditis how?
vegetation present on both side of the valve
Collagen Vascular diseases produce what type of vegetations on heart valves?
veroccous--present on both sides of the valve
What are cachetic endocarditis?
products of cancers, thrombi vegetate valves
What organism causes vegetation on prothetic heart valves?
coagulase negative staph. epidermidis
3 types of cardiomyopathy?
2 drugs that cause Dilated cardiomyopathy?
causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
- coxackie A
- wet beri beri
DIlated heart has what kind of dysfunction? systolic or diastolic?
systolic--unable to pump
cause of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
beta myosin heavy chain
Endocardial fibroelastosis results in what that causes restrictive cardiomyopathy?
thick fibroelastic tissue in the endocardium
What conditions can cause Restrictive cardiomyopathy?
hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, pompes
2 causes of Tricuspid stenosis/regurg?
- staph aureus with IV drug abuses
- Carcinoid syndrome
Causes of myocarditis?
- echo virus
- chagas dz
Autoimmune dz associated with myocarditis?
Cardiac myxoma has what origin?
Where does it normally occur?
Cardiac rhabdomyoma occurs as apart of what syndrome?
What valve abnormality has fish mouth appearance?
Viral myocarditis results in what?