Micro Midterm 1

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brittanysparks
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102720
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Micro Midterm 1
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2011-09-19 01:32:44
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Micro Midterm
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Micro Midterm 1
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  1. The enzyme that opens up the DNA helix for protein synthesis
    RNA Polymerase
  2. A sequence of 3 DNA nycleotides that code for 1 amino acid
    Base triplet
  3. DNA nucleotide sequence that codes for one polypeptide
    Gene
  4. The term that describes the conversion of codes of nucleotides into the language of amino acids and their sequences for protein production
    Translation
  5. New proteins are instructed how to unfold properly by old protein molecules called
    chapperones
  6. The process of shutting down DNA production of protein that usually cause by too much end product
    repression
  7. A bacterial chromosome is contained in a structure called a
    nucleoid
  8. small circular DNA in bacteria that operate independently of the main DNA which is also responsible for bacterial mutations
    plasmid
  9. synthesized protein that leaves the ER in vesicles coated by the ER's membrance called
    clathrin
  10. name of the enzyme that opens up the DNA for DNA replication
    DNA helicase
  11. genes that are constantly turned on are referred to as
    constitutive
  12. name of the structures produced by rRNA
    ribosomes
  13. a term referring to a substance being chemically altered during its transport across a prokaryotes membrane (specific to bacteria)
    group translocation
  14. the parts of the DNA that are expressed as products are called
    exons
  15. nucleosomes are composed of 8 circular proteins called
    histones
  16. a double carbon nitrogen base on a nucleotide is called a
    purine
  17. the area on the DNA that contains the genes that code for the protein plus the control region that starts and stops the protein production
    operon
  18. term for microbs that get introduced into a culture medium
    inoculums
  19. bonds that hook amino acids together are called ______ bonds
    peptide
  20. an organelle that contains hydrolytic digestive enzymes for recycling old parts and digestion of bacteria
    lysosomes
  21. term for reactions that creates more energy than they consume
    exergonic
  22. the basic unit or smallest sugar molecule is a ______
    monosaccharide
  23. the principal energy molecule of all cells is_____
    ATP
  24. type of reaction when a molecule picks up an electron during the reaction
    reduction
  25. when a virus enters a bacteria and manipulates its DNA the bacteria becomes______
    bacteriophage
  26. what kind of reaction makes larger molecules from maller ones in a living thing
    anabolic
  27. bacteria with thick multi-layered peptidoglycan cell walls
    gram positive
  28. organelle that cell respiration occurs in
    mitochondria
  29. rod shaped bacteria are referred to as ______
    bacillus
  30. term that describes rupturing of a cell
    lysis
  31. term for proteins being unfolded and rendered in effective
    denaturation
  32. the first step in cellular respiriation is called ______
    glycolysis
  33. the protein portion of an respiration is called _____
    apoenzyme
  34. the addition of phosphorus to a compound is called
    phosphorylation
  35. the non protein portion of the enzyme required for its activiation
    cofactor
  36. the protein portion of the enzyme together with its non protein portion called ______
    holoenzyme
  37. -they can increase in number with exercise
    -they are capable of producing lactic acid
    -the DNA they contain is only transferred from the mothers mitochondrial DNA
    Mitochondria
  38. Making of larger molecules to smaller ones include
    • hydrolysis reaction
    • synthesis reaction
    • dehydration reaction
  39. Breaking of larger molecules to smaller ones include
    • produces more energy than it consumes
    • Degradation
    • Catabolism
  40. method of moving molecules through a cell membrane requires the most energy
    active transport
  41. name of the molecule that is meant to bind on the active site of an enzyme
    substrate
  42. variations of a bacteria strain as determined by its H antigens are called
    serovar
  43. coccus refers to bacteria as being
    round
  44. complex sugars that lack sweetness
    polysaccharide
  45. a sugar coated material that makes bacteria sticky
    glycocalx
  46. the degree to which a bacteria is able to cause disease is referred to as bacteria's ________
    virulance
  47. the same elemental atom with different numbers of neutrons is called _______
    isotope
  48. term for a method used by cells to envolope a liquid
    pinocytosis
  49. in the process of osmosis high concentrations of sodium on the outside of the cell will have
    water exit through the cell membrane
  50. Nucleic acid examples are
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • ATP
  51. they make proteins of use outside of the cell
    they are attached to the ER
    they are made inside the nucleus
    Ribosomes
  52. it is a single stranded structure
    it directs the synthesis of proteins
    it interpets teh code of the DNA
    RNA
  53. horizontal gene transfer by bacteria that requires the bacteria to lyse and release its DNA into the surrounding environment
    transformation
  54. which RNA molecules are responsible for picking up amino acids for protein systhesis
    tRNA
  55. 4 phases of bacteria growth, which phase are bacteria multiplying the least
    lag phase
  56. all living organisms require _______ compounds to sustain life
    inorganic
  57. a ______ molecule is a polar molecule
    hydrophilic
  58. an atom that has gained an electron is _____ and has a ______ charge
    • ionic
    • negative
  59. removal of an electron from an atom or molecule
    oxidation
  60. the site where a non-competative inhibitor would bind to an enzyme
    allosteric
  61. fluid portion only inside the cell is called the ______
    cytosol

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