MGT 300 Exam 1 Definitions

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xSLYx
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MGT 300 Exam 1 Definitions
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2011-09-19 11:08:54
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management
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MGT 300 Exam 1 definitions (chapters 1-3; 12-14)
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  1. Practices aimed at discovering and harnessing an organization's intellectual resources.
    Knowledge management
  2. Introduction of new goods and services.
    Innovation
  3. Excellence of your product.
    Quality
  4. Speed and dependability with which an organization delivers what customers want; focused on
    continually meeting needs of customers to establish mutually beneficial long-term relationships.
    Service
  5. Fast and timely execution, response, and delivery of results.
    Speed
  6. Keeping costs low to achieve profits and be able to offer prices that are attractive to consumers.
    Cost competitiveness
  7. Process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    Management
  8. Management function of systematically making decisions about the goals and activities that
    an individual, group, work unit, or the overall organization will pursue; delivering strategic value.
    Planning
  9. Monetary amount associated with how well a job, task, good, or service meets users’ needs.
    Value
  10. Management function of assembling and coordinating human, financial, physical, informational,
    and other resources needed to achieve goals; building a dynamic organization.
    Organizing
  11. Management function that involves the manager’s efforts to stimulate high performance by employees;
    mobilizing people.
    Leading
  12. Management function of monitoring performance and making needed changes; learning and changing.
    Controlling
  13. Senior executives responsible for the overall management and effectiveness of an organization.
    Top-level managers
  14. Managers located in the middle layers of the organizational hierarchy, reporting to top-level
    executives.
    Middle-level managers
  15. Lover-level managers who supervise the operational activities of the organization.
    Frontline managers
  16. Ability to perform a specialized task involving a particular method or process.
    Technical skill
  17. Skills pertaining to the ability to identify and resolve problems for the benefit of the organization
    and its members.
    Conceptual and decision skills
  18. People skills; ability to lead, motivate and communicate effectively with others.
    Interpersonal and communication skills
  19. Skills of understanding yourself, managing yourself, and dealing effectively with others.
    Emotional intelligence
  20. Goodwill stemming from your social relationships.
    Social capital
  21. Organizations that are affected by, and that affect, their environment.
    Open systems
  22. Goods and services organizations take in and use to create products or services.
    Inputs
  23. Products and services organizations create.
    Outputs
  24. All relevant forces outside a firm’s boundaries, such as competitors, customers, the government,
    and the economy.
    External environment
  25. General environment; includes government, economic conditions, and other fundamental factors
    that generally affect all organizations (i.e. legal, political, technological, demographic, social and natural)
    Macroenvironment
  26. Immediate environment surrounding a firm; includes suppliers, customers, rivals, new entrants,
    substitutes and complements.
    Competitive environment
  27. Measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units. Ex.] Age, gender, family size, income, education, occupation, etc.
    Demographics
  28. Conditions that prevent new companies from entering an industry.
    Barriers to entry
  29. Fixed costs buyers face when they change suppliers.
    Switching costs
  30. Managing of the network of facilities and people that obtain materials from outside the organization,
    transform them into products, and distribute them to customers.
    Supply chain management
  31. Those who purchase products in their finished form.
    Final customer
  32. A customer who purchases raw materials or wholesale products before selling them to final
    customers.
    Intermediate customer
  33. Lack of information needed to understand or predict the future.
    Environmental uncertainty
  34. Searching for and sorting through information about the environment.
    Environmental scanning
  35. Information that helps managers determine how to compete better.
    Competitive intelligence
  36. A narrative that describes a particular set of future conditions
    Scenario
  37. Method for predicting how variables will change the future.
    Forecasting
  38. The process of comparing an organization’s practices and technologies with those of other companies.
    Benchmarking
  39. Process of sharing power with employees to enhance their confidence in their abilities to
    perform their jobs and their belief that that are influential contributors.
    Empowerment
  40. Creating supplies of excess resources in case of unpredictable needs.
    Buffering
  41. Leveling normal fluctuations at the boundaries of the environment.
    Smoothing
  42. Methods for adapting the technical core to changes in the environment
    Flexible processes
  43. Strategies an organization acting on its own uses to change some current aspect of the environment.
    Independent strategies
  44. Strategies used by two or more organizations working together to manage the environment
    Cooperative strategies
  45. Conscious efforts to change boundaries of task environment.
    Strategic maneuvering
  46. Entering new market or industry with an existing expertise.
    Domain selection
  47. Firm’s investment in a different product, business, or geographic area.
    Diversification
  48. One or more companies combining with one another.
    Merger
  49. One firm buying from another.
    Acquisitions
  50. A firm selling one or more businesses.
    Divestiture
  51. Companies that continually change the boundaries for their task environments by seeking new products and markets, diversifying and merging, or acquiring new enterprises.
    Prospectors
  52. Companies that stay within a stable product domain as a strategic maneuver.
    Defenders
  53. Set of important assumptions about the organization and its goals and practices that members
    of the company share.
    Organizational culture
  54. Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using
    simple rules, policies, or numerical computations.
    Programmed decisions
  55. New, novel, complex decisions having no proven answers.
    Nonprogrammed decisions
  56. Ideas that have been seen or tried before.
    Ready-made solutions
  57. New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem.
    Custom-made solutions
  58. Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds.
    Contingency plans
  59. Decision realizing the best possible outcome.
    Maximizing
  60. Choosing an option that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect.
    Satisficing
  61. Achieving the best possible balance among several goals.
    Optimizing
  62. Process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making.
    Vigilance
  63. Belief that one can influence events, even when they have no control over what will happen.
    Illusion of control
  64. Decision bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or
    presented.
    Framing effects
  65. Bias weighting short-term costs and benefits more heavily that longer-term costs and benefits.
    Discounting the future
  66. Phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive
    for consensus.
    Groupthink
  67. Condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original goal and a
    new, less important goal emerges.
    Goal displacement
  68. Issue-based differences in perspectives or judgements.
    Cognitive conflict
  69. Emotional disagreement directed toward other people.
    Affective conflict
  70. Less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because
    decisions are complex an complete information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed.
    Bounded rationality
  71. Model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller
    decisions.
    Incremental model
  72. Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power
    and negotiation to influence decisions.
    Coalitional model
  73. Model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decisions.
    Garbage can model
  74. One who influences others to attain goals, orchestrate change, set direction, and motivate people
    to overcome obstacles and move the organization toward its ideal future.
    Leadership
  75. Challenge conventional beliefs and practices, and create change.
    Challenge the process
  76. Appeal to people’s values and motivate them to care about an important mission.
    Inspire a shared vision
  77. Give people access to information and the power to perform to their full potential.
    Enable others to act
  78. Don’t just tell people what to do; living examples of the ideals they believe in.
    Model the way
  79. Show appreciation, provide rewards, and use various approaches to motivate people in positive
    ways.
    Encourage the heart
  80. A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization.
    Vision
  81. Behavior that provides guidance, support and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.
    Supervisory leadership
  82. Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive
    future.
    Strategic leadership
  83. The ability to influence others.
    Power
  84. A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great
    leaders share.
    Trait approach
  85. Leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do; that is, what behaviors
    they exhibit.
    Behavioral approach
  86. Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.
    Task performance behaviors
  87. Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious
    work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group.
    Group maintenance behaviors
  88. Highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward
    individuals on a personal basis.
    Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
  89. Leader behaviors that managers perform in involving their employees in making decisions.
    Participation in decision making
  90. Leader makes decisions on his/her own and then announces those decisions to the group.
    Autocratic leadership
  91. Leader solicits input from subordinates.
    Democratic leadership
  92. Leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making.
    Laissez-faire
  93. Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist,
    and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
    Situational approach
  94. Situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.
    Vroom model
  95. Situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal
    style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control and influence over the situation.
    Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness
  96. Places primary emphasis on completing a task.
    Task-motivated leadership
  97. Places primary emphasis on maintain good interpersonal relationships.
    Relationship-motivated leadership
  98. Life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee’s psychological
    and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important.
    Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory
  99. Level of the employee’s skills and technical knowledge relative to the task being performed.
    Job maturity
  100. An employee’s self-confidence and self-respect.
    Psychological maturity
  101. Theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and
    the oaths they follow toward attainment of those goals.
    Path-goal theory
  102. Factors in the workplace that can exert the same influence on employees that leaders can provide.
    Substitutes for leadership
  103. Person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his/her beliefs,
    and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.
    Charismatic leader
  104. Leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.
    Transformational leader
  105. Combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring
    greatness.
    Level 5 leadership
  106. Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers
    to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.
    Transactional leaders
  107. Leader is true to himself/herself while leading.
    Authentic leadership
  108. Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over
    followers’ needs.
    Pseudotransformational leaders
  109. Leader who serves others’ needs while strengthening the organization.
    Servant-leader
  110. Leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures.
    Bridge leader
  111. Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person
    has the most relevant skills at a particular time.
    Shared leadership
  112. Colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint
    problem solving.
    Lateral leadership
  113. Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts.
    Motivation
  114. Motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their
    thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
    Goal-setting theory
  115. Targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible.
    Stretch goals
  116. Law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive
    consequences will likely be repeated.
    Law of effect
  117. Positive consequences that motivate behavior.
    Reinforcers
  118. Application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings.
    Organizational behavior modification (OB mod)
  119. Applying consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior
    that led to it.
    Positive reinforcement
  120. Removing or withholding an undesirable consequence.
    Negative reinforcement
  121. Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
    Extinction
  122. Theory proposing people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort
    will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
    Expectancy theory
  123. Employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their
    performance goals.
    Expectancy
  124. Value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it.
    Valence
  125. Perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by particular outcome.
    Instrumentality
  126. Rewards given to a person by the boss, company, or some other person.
    Extrinsic rewards
  127. Reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself.
    Intrinsic reward
  128. Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom.
    Job rotation
  129. Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom.
    Job enlargement
  130. Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying.
    Job enrichment
  131. Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction
    Two-factor theory
  132. Degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development.
    Growth need strength
  133. Process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization.
    Empowerment
  134. States that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: Outcomes; Inputs
    Equity theory
  135. Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as
    fair as possible.
    Procedural justice
  136. Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being.
    Quality of work life (QWL) programs
  137. Set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.
    Psychological contract
  138. Small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set
    of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
    Team
  139. Teams that make or do things like manufacture, assemble, sell, or provide service.
    Work teams
  140. Teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed.
    Project and development teams
  141. Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure, and exist temporarily.
    Parallel teams
  142. Teams that coordinate and provide direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate
    work among subunits.
    Management teams
  143. Work groups composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries.
    Transnational teams
  144. Teams that are physically dispersed and communicate electronically more than face-to-face.
    Virtual teams
  145. Working less hard and being less productive when in a group.
    Social loafing
  146. Working harder when in a group than when working alone.
    Social facilitation effect
  147. Degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in
    the group, and members influence one another.
    Cohesiveness
  148. Team strategy that entails making decision with the team and then informing outsiders of its
    intentions.
    Informing
  149. Team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external
    visibility.
    Parading
  150. Team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their
    needs, and experiment with solutions.
    Probing
  151. Style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not
    being assertive about one’s own interests.
    Accomodation
  152. Reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing
    the disagreement.
    Avoidance
  153. Style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to bother parties’ concerns.
    Compromise
  154. Style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for the other person’s goals.
    Competing
  155. Style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize
    both parties’ satisfaction.
    Collaboration
  156. Higher-level goals taking priority over specific individual or group goals.
    Superordinate goals

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