chapter4.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
itzlinds
ID:
102782
Filename:
chapter4.txt
Updated:
2011-12-12 23:44:31
Tags:
Cell Division
Folders:

Description:
Cell Division and Heridity
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user itzlinds on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. which law states that members of one pair or genes segregate independently of other pairs?
    Mendel's 2nd Law
  2. When a red flower crossed with a white flower produces a pink flower, which of the following is demonstrated?
    A) codominance
    B) polygenic inheritance
    C) pleiotrophy
    D) incomplete dominance
    D
  3. Mitosis functions to
    A) form sex cells.
    B) increase cell number for growth.
    C) create variability in the population.
    D) All of the above.
    B
  4. The cell cycle refers to
    A) the life cycle in a normal cell.
    B) cell division only in a normal cell.
    C) the life cycle of a cancer cell.
    D) cell division in a cancer cell.
    A
  5. The term semiconservative refers to _______________.
    A) transcription
    B) translation
    C) DNA replication
    D) protein synthesis
    C
  6. Translation occurs in the ________________.
    A) peroxisomes
    B) nucleosomes
    C) spliceosomes
    D) ribosomes
    E) nucleus
    D
  7. If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence CTTTAT what will the RNA codons be when transcribed?
    A) GAAATA
    B) GAAAUA
    C) CAAAUA
    D) CATAUU
    B
  8. Where would you find an anticodon?
    A) on mRNA
    B) on a ribosome
    C) on tRNA
    D) on DNA
    E) on a protein
    C
  9. Proteins which serve as "spools" to help organize chromatin are called
    A) clathrin.
    B) histones.
    C) cytokines.
    D) chaperones.
    E) polymerases.
    B
  10. The type of bond between the A-T and G-C pairs is
    A) polar covalent.
    B) non-polar covalent.
    C) ionic.
    D) hydrogen.
    D
  11. The letters A, G, T, and C represent
    A) phosphate groups.
    B) sugar groups.
    C) nitrogenous bases.
    D) protein molecules.
    C
  12. What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
    chromatin, chromosomes, chromatids
  13. Fine filament material called _____ occur as 46 long filaments called _____. Each ___ then contains 2 parellle filaments called _______.
    chromatin, chromosomes, chromatids
  14. what governs the pattern of base pairing in DNA?
    single ringed pyrimidine with a large double ringed purine gives the DNA molecule its uniform withd.
  15. Adenine and ____ form 2 H bonds.
    Thymine
  16. guanine and _________ form 3 H bonds
    cytocine
  17. A-T, and C-G are called:
    Base pairs
  18. An info containing segment of DNA that codes for production of RNA and plays a role in the synthesis for one or more proteins is called
    Gene
  19. A system that enables 4 nucleotides to code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins is called:
    genetic Code
  20. The synthesis of protein from an mRNA molecule is called __________ and occurs in the __________.

    A. replication; nucleus
    B. transcription; nucleus
    C. translation; cytoplasm
    D. termination; cytoplasm
    E. transcription; cytoplasm
    F. translation; nucleus
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. A 3-base sequence of mRNA that codes for an amino acid is called:

    a. an anticodon
    b. a codon
    c. ribosomal RNA
    d. the TATA box
    e. a gene
    A
  22. In which stage of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?

    a. first gap phase
    b. synthesis phase
    c. anaphase
    d. telophase
    e. cytokinesis
    b
  23. Which of the follwing is a characteristic of meiosis?

    a. occurs in somatic cells
    b. produces two identical diploid cells
    c. for growth and repair
    d. all of the above
    c. none of the above
    c
  24. In __________ of mitosis, spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite poles of the cell.

    a. anaphase
    b. telophase
    c. metaphase
    d. cytokinesis
    e. prophase
    a
  25. The exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis is called:

    a. independent assortment
    b. crossing over
    c. recombination
    d. synapsis
    e. segregation
    b
  26. Different forms of the same gene that may produce an alternate form of the same trait are called:

    a. alleles
    b. phenotypes
    c. haploid
    d. karyotypes
    e. carriers
    a
  27. In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype is the:

    A. recessive allele
    B. ghost allele
    C. dominant allele
    D. incomplete allele
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. If Marge is homozygous dominant for blue hair and Homer is homozygous recessive for black hair, what is the probability that together they will have a blue-haired child?

    a. 0%
    b. 25%
    c. 50%
    e. 75%
    f. 100
    f
  29. Ned has type O blood and his wife Mod is blood type AB. What is the probability that their next child will be type O?

    a. 0%
    b. 25%
    c. 50%
    d. 75%
    e. 100%
    a
  30. Colorblindness is a sex-linked trait. If Kurt Van Houten is colorblind and Luane Van Houten has normal vision (and is not a carrier), what is the probability that their son Millhouse is colorblind?

    a. 25%
    b. 75%
    c. 100%
    d. 0%
    e. 50%
    d
  31. The ____ occurs as 23 pairs of (46) chromosomes that appear on the karyotype chart.
    human genom
  32. 1 of the 23 pairs on the human genome is a ___ chromosome.
    sex
  33. the genetic code is expressed in terms of:
    codons
  34. Put the following in the correct order:
    a. mRNA leaves the nucleus of the cell to carry its instructions for protein synthesis into the cytoplasm
    b. a ribosome binds to the mRNA.
    c. the tRNA anticodon binds to the complementary mRNA condon, forming a new amino aicd.
    d. the tRNA picks up a free amino acid (anticodon). this process uses 1 ATP.
    e. tRNA is released from the ribosome and free to pick up new amino aicds to repeat the process again and again.
    f. the ribosomes links the growing protein chain to the newly formed amino acid.
    g. DNA is unzipped in sections and made into mRNA.
    • g
    • a
    • b
    • d
    • c
    • f
    • e
  35. During transcription the RNA ____ binds to the DNA and assembles the RNA.
    polymerase
  36. the RNA polymerase opens the DNA ____ about 17 base pairs at a time
    helix
  37. the _____ are found in the cytostol, and 2 subunits come together while translating mRNA
    ribosomes
  38. the role of _____ during translation is to bind free amino acids in the cytostol, deliver it to the ribosomes, and add it to a growing protein chain.
    tRNA
  39. what is the differenct between geneitc transcripiton and translation?
    transcription occurs in the nucleus; goes from DNA to mRNA while translation occurs in the cytoplasm and goes from mRNA to protein.
  40. During DNA replication, on one strand of the uncoiled double helix the DNA ____ moves toward the replication fork and makes a long continueous strand of DNA.
    polymerase
  41. During DNA replicaton, on the other strand of the uncoiled double helix another DNA ____ moves AWAY from the replication fork replicating the DNA in short segments with gaps between them.
    polymerase
  42. Contrast the functions of DNA polymerase to RNA polymerase:
    DNA ploymerase moves along the strand with seperate polymerase molecules proceeding in opposite directions with one on each strand. while RNA polymerase move along the RNA 17 base pairs at a time, rewinding the double helix behind it , and another polymerase follows behind it.
  43. Explain why DNA replication is called semiconservative.
    Each daughter DNA consists of one new helix synthesized from free nucleotides and one old helix is conserved from the parental DNA
  44. List the stages of the cell cycle and summarize what happens at each stage:
    • G1 : cell synthesizes proteins, grows, carries out normal metabolic roles
    • S phase: makes dupilicate copy of centirols and nucleuar DNA
    • G2: finishes synthesizing enzymes, checks DNA replication, repairs errors
    • Interphase: G1, S, G2
  45. List the stages of mitosis and the main processess that occur in eacch one:
    • prophase: 46 chromosomes, 2 chromotides per chromosome. centriols being to sprout spindle fibers nuclear envelope breaks down, centriols migrage toward opposite poles
    • metaphase: chromosomes align along the midline of the cell, aster anchors fibers to the plasma membrane of the cell
    • anaphase: centromers split, spindle fibers pull sister chromatids toward opposite ends
    • telophase: chromatides decondenses, new nuclear envelop appreas, new nucleoi in each nucleus
  46. List the stages of mieosis and the main processes that occur in each one:
    • prophase 1: homologous chromosomes line up side by side to form a tetrad(4 chromatids), exchange segments of DNA in a process called crossing over
    • metaphase 1: chromosomes line up at the midline of the cell
    • anaphase 1: separate * centromeres do not divide*
    • telophase 1: cell divides in two and chromatids do not separate, each homolgous chromosome is still double stranded, each daughter has only 23 chromosomes
    • meiosis 2 is just like mitosis
  47. the production of eggs or sperm is called:
    gametogenesis
  48. the production of a fertilizable egg cell through a serise of mitotic and meiotic cell divisioins is called:
    oogenesis
  49. the production of sperm cells through a series of mitotic and meiotic cell divisions is called
    spermatogenesis
  50. which of the following is a pyridadine in DNA?

    A. guanine
    B. cytosine
    C. uracil
    D. adenine
    B. cytosine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. which of the following organelles fucntion in the production of proteins?

    A. nucleus
    B. golgi body
    C. ribosome
    D. lyososome
    C. ribosome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. which organ is used to maintain the internal structure of a cell?

    A. nuclear membrane
    B. cytoskeleton
    C. cell membrane
    D. rought endoplasmic reticulum
    B. cytoskeleton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. what are the 4 bases in DNA?
    AGCT
  54. what are the 4 bases in RNA?
    AGCU
  55. why must DNA be transcribed to mRNA before leaving the nucleus?
    DNA is too large
  56. put the following in the correct order:

    ribosome dissociated into its two subunits (when translatation of entire mRNA is commplet)
    the tRNA anitcondon bids to the complementray mRNA condon, formina a new amino acid
    mRNA leaves nucleus of teh cell to carry its instruction for proteins synthesis into the cytoplasm.
    ribosomal subunits rejoin to repeat to process with more mRNA
    the ribsome links the growing protein chain to the newly formed amino acid
    the tRNA picks up a few amino acid (anitcodon). this process uses 1 atp
    DNA is unzipped in sections and made into mRNA
    tRNA s released from the ribosome and free to pick up new amino acids to repeat the process again and again
    a ribosome binds to the mRNA
    • DNA is unzipped in sections and made into mRNA
    • mRNA leaves the nucleus of the cell to carry its instructions for protein synthesis into the cytoplasm
    • a ribosome binds to the mRNA
    • the tRNA picks up a free amino acid (anitcodon). this procss uses 1 atp
    • the tRNA anticodon binds to the complementary mRNA codon, formina a new amino acid
    • the ribosome links the growng protein chain to the newly formed amino acid
    • tRNA is relased from the ribosome and free to pick up new amino acids to repeat the process again and again
    • ribosome dissociates into its two subunits (when translation of entire mRNA is comlete)
    • ribosomal subunts rejoin to repeat the process with more mRNA
  57. DNA(in nucleus) --> mRNA (in cytoplasm) --> protein (used throughout the body)
  58. cell type that uses mitosis:
    number of times DNA replicates in mitosis:
    number of cell divisions in mitosis:
    number of chromsomes/chromatids after each cell divison in mitosis:
    number of cells produced in mitosis:
    haploid (n) or diploid (2n):
    gentically identical or different from parent:
    • cell type that uses mitosis: somato cells
    • number of times DNA replicates in mitosis: 1
    • number of cell divisions in mitosis: 1
    • number of chromsomes/chromatids after each cell divison in mitosis: 46/2 to 46/1
    • number of cells produced in mitosis: 2
    • haploid (n) or diploid (2n): diploid
    • gentically identical or different from parent: identical
  59. cell type that uses meiosis:
    number of times DNA replicates in meiosis:
    number of cell divisions in meiosis:
    number of chromsomes/chromatids after each cell divison in meisos:
    number of cells produced in meisos:
    haploid (n) or diploid (2n):
    gentically identical or different from parent:
    • cell type that uses meiosis: germ cells
    • number of times DNA replicates in meiosis: 1
    • number of cell divisions in meiosis: 2
    • number of chromsomes/chromatids after each cell divison in meisos: 46/2 to 23/2
    • number of cells produced in meisos: 4 different
    • haploid (n) or diploid (2n): haploid
    • gentically identical or different from parent: different
  60. a base tripet is found on the ______ and matches up with a codon found on the _____.
    • DNA
    • mRNA
  61. transcription is the synthesis of _____ from ___.
    • mRNA
    • DNA
  62. translation is the synthesis of _____ from ____.
    • RNA
    • protein
  63. does mitosis result in diploid or haploid cells?
    diploid
  64. Describe the sates of mitosis:
    interphase
    prophase
    metaphase
    anaphase
    telophase.cyotkineisis
    • interphase: G1, G2, synthesis
    • prophase: neucluar envelope disappears, spindle fibers sprout
    • metaphase: chromosomes align
    • anaphase: centriols separated, chromosomes
    • telophase: chormotides are at opposite ends, envelope reappears
    • cytokinesis: cytoplasm splits
  65. translation occurs in the:

    A. cytoplasm
    B. ribosome
    C. nucleus
    D. mitochondria
    A. cytoplasm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. the haploid number of chromsomes in humans is:

    A. 23
    B. 46
    C. 92
    D.13
    A.23
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. The observable physiclal and physicological traits of an organism are called the:

    A. karyotype
    B. phenotype
    C. holotype
    D. genotype
    B. phenotype
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. what is the probability of making a gamete with AbcDE from the following AABbCcDDEe?

    A. 1/8
    B. 1/32
    C. 1/4
    D. 1/16
    A. 1/8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. which of the following is true for meiosis?

    A. contains centrioles that divide
    B. produces haploid cells
    C. occurs in somatic cells
    D. yields cells with a final output of 2n
    B. produces haploid cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. in a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype is the:

    A. inherited allele
    B. dominate allele
    C. incomplete allele
    D. recessive allele
    B. dominate allele
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. the divison of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells is:

    A. interphase
    B. telophase
    C. mitosis
    D. cytokinesis
    D. cytokinesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. mr. x and mrs. x decied its time to have children. he is color blind ( a sex linked trait) and while she can distinguish among the colors of the rainbow, her father was colorblind. if these two have a boy, what is the probablility the boy will be color blind?

    A. 1/4
    B. 1/2
    C. 3/4
    D. 0
    B. 1/2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview