study ace

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study ace
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  1. Karvonen Formula
  2. 220 - (AGE) = MHR
    • MHR – RHR = HRR
    • HRR x (60% to 80%) = TR%
    • TR% + RHR = TTZ
  3. acronyms for hr
  4. AGE = Client’s Age
    • MHR = Maximum Heart Rate
    • RHR = Resting Heart Rate
    • HRR = Heart Rate Reserve
    • TR = Training Range
    • TTZ = Target Training Zone
  5. SMART Goals
  6. S – Specific
    • M – Measurable
    • A – Attainable
    • R – Realistic
    • T – Time-Based
  7. FITT Principle
    • The FITT principle is a basic philosophy of what is necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise
    • program:
    • F – Frequency
    • I – Intensity
    • T – Time
    • T – Type
  8. Planes of Motion
  9. Sagittal - any plane parallel to the median plane
    • 􀂃 Midsagittal (Median) - separates body into right and left parts
    • • Frontal (Coronal) - separates the body into anterior and posterior parts
    • • Transverse (Horizontal) - separates the body into superior and inferior parts
  10. Axes of Motion
  11. Each plane is defined by an axis, a line that is perpendicular (at a 45o angle to) to the plane.
  12. inferior
    superior

    reference point
    • closer to the feet
    • closer to the head


    horizontal plane
  13. posterior (dorsal)

    anterior (ventral)

    reference point
    • closer to the posterior
    • surface of the body

    • closer to the anterior
    • surface of the body

    frontal (coronal) plane
  14. medial

    lateral

    reference point:
    • lying closer to the
    • midline

    • lying further away from
    • the midline

    sagittal plane
  15. proximal

    distal

    reference point
    • closer to the origin of a
    • structure

    • further away from the
    • origin of a structure

    the origin of a structure
  16. superficial

    deep
  17. surface of body or organ
  18. median
  19. along the midsagittal or median plane
  20. intermediate
  21. between two other structures
  22. external

    internal
    refers to a hollow structure

    (external being outside and internal being inside
  23. supine
  24. face or palm up when lying on posterior surface of body
  25. prone
  26. face or palm down when lying on anterior surface of body
  27. cephalad
  28. toward the head
  29. caudad
  30. toward the tail (feet)
  31. flexion
  32. increasing angle with frontal plane
  33. extension
  34. decreasing angle with frontal plane
  35. abduction
  36. moving away from the sagittal plane
  37. adduction
  38. moving toward the sagittal plane
  39. protraction
  40. moving forward along a surface
  41. retraction
  42. moving backward along a surface
  43. elevation
  44. raising a structure
  45. depression
  46. lowering a structure
  47. medial rotation
  48. movement around an axis of a bone
  49. lateral rotation
  50. movement around an axis of a bone
  51. pronation
  52. placing palm backward (in anatomical position)
  53. supination
  54. placing palm forward (in antomical position)
  55. circumduction
  56. combined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial & lateral
    rotation, circumscribe a cone
  57. opposition
  58. bringing tips of fingers and thumb together (as if to pick something up)
  59. Rotator Cuff Muscles (SITS)
  60. S – Supraspinatus
    • I – Infraspinatus
    • T – Teres Minor
    • S – Subscapularis
  61. Stroke volume
  62. the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one
    contraction.
  63. Cardiac output
    • the total volume of blood pumped by the ventricle per minute, or simply the
    • product of heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV).

    CO = HR x SV
  64. Blood Pressure
  65. Blood pressure is the force in the arteries when the heart beats (systolic pressure) and when the
    heart is at rest (diastolic pressure). It's measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
  66. Energy
  67. energy for exercise is derived from three (3) primary sources
  68. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) & PCr (Creatine Phosphate)
  69. Anaerobic
    • 􀂃 Simplest energy system
    • 􀂃 1 mole PCr = 1 mole ATP
    • 􀂃 Can only sustain energy for 3-15 seconds
  70. Glycolysis
  71. Anaerobic
    • 􀂃 1 mole glucose = 2 moles ATP
    • 􀂃 1 mole glygogen = 3 moles ATP
    • 􀂃 Can only sustain energy for 2-3 minutes
  72. Oxidation
  73. Aerobic
    • 􀂃 Energy yield = 39 moles ATP
    • 􀂃 Sustains energy for 3-4 hours
  74. MET (Metabolic Equivalent)
  75. the energy expended while resting, usually calculated as the energy used to burn 3 to 4
    • milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute.
    • 1 MET = 3.5mL O2/kg/min
  76. Anaerobic Threshold
  77. The anaerobic threshold, the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulates in the muscles, is
    • considered to be somewhere between 85% and 90% of your maximum heart rate. This is
    • approximately 40 beats higher than the aerobic threshold.
  78. Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
  79. After cardiovascular exercise or weight training, the body continues to need oxygen at a higher
    • rate than before the exercise began. This sustained oxygen consumption is known as excess
    • post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC).
  80. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
  81. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after exercise is not uncommon, particularly if you are
    • just beginning exercise program or changing activities. Delayed onset muscle soreness is
    • generally the worst within the first two (2) days following the activity and subsides over the next
    • few days. It is thought that delayed onset muscle soreness is the result of microscopic tearing
    • of the muscle fibers. The amount of tearing (and soreness) depends on the activity, the
    • intensity and the time of the activity. Any movement you aren't used to can lead to DOMS, but
    • eccentric muscle contraction (movements that cause muscle to contract while it lengthens)
    • seem to cause the most soreness.
  82. Fitness evaluations consist of four (4) types of assessments
  83. 1. Aerobic Assessment
    • 2. Muscle Strength Assessment
    • 3. Muscle Endurance Assessment
    • 4. Flexibility Assessment
  84. Specificity of Training
  85. a key concept of periodization that states that for an
    • individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be
    • trained and practices; a specific demand (e.g., exercise) made on the body will result
    • in a specific response by the body.
  86. Overload Principle
  87. a principle of human performance that states that beneficial
    • adaptations occur in response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a
    • certain threshold (overload), but within the limits of tolerance and safety.
  88. Maxiload
  89. The maximum load method positively influences speed- and powerdominant
    • sports by increasing the myosin diameter of the fast-twitch fibers and
    • recruiting more fast-twitch fibers. This method can result in maximum strength
    • gains that are up to three times greater than the proportional gain in muscle
    • hypertrophy.
  90. Overtraining Syndrome
  91. constant intense training that does not provide adequate
    • time for recovery; symptoms include increased resting heart rate, impaired physical
    • performance, reduced enthusiasm and desire for training, increased incidence of
    • injuries and illness, altered appetite, disturbed sleep patterns, and irritability.
  92. Phases of a Strength Training Program
  93. 1. Muscle Mass
    • 2. Muscle Strength
    • 3. Muscle Power
  94. Flexion (Contraction)
  95. Shortening – Agonist Muscles
  96. Extension
  97. Lengthening – Antagonist Muscles
  98. Overload
  99. a principle of human performance that states that beneficial adaptations occur in
    • response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a certain threshold (overload), but
    • within the limits of tolerance and safety.
  100. Overtraining
  101. constant intense training that does not provide adequate time for recovery;
    • symptoms include increased resting heart rate, impaired physical performance, reduced
    • enthusiasm and desire for training, increased incidence of injuries and illness, altered appetite,
    • disturbed sleep patterns, and irritability.
  102. Six (6) signs of Overtraining Syndrome include:
  103. 1. Persistent plateau or worsening of performance
    • 2. Disturbances in mood and sleep
    • 3. Loss of appetite and weight
    • 4. Muscle soreness
    • 5. Overuse injuries
    • 6. Increased resting heart rate*
  104. SMART Goals
  105. S – Specific
    • M – Measurable
    • A – Attainable
    • R – Realistic
    • T – Time-Based
  106. Karvonen Formula
  107. 220 - (AGE) = MHR
    • MHR – RHR = HRR
    • HRR x (60% to 80%) = TR%
    • TR% + RHR = TTZ
  108. Simple Method
  109. 220 – (AGE) = MHR
    MHR x (60% to 90%) = TTZ
  110. Determining Resting Heart Rate
  111. Resting heart rate is most accurately measured just before the client gets out of bed in the
    • morning. Accuracy is further enhanced by averaging three-to-five (3-5) separate morning
    • readings.
  112. FITT Principle
    • The FITT principle is a basic philosophy of what is necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise
    • program:

    • Example
    • F – Frequency 3x per week
    • I – Intensity 60% TTZ
    • T – Time 30 minutes or 10/10/10
    • T – Type Stationary Cycling
  113. VO2 Max
    • VO2 Max functionally represents the maximum amount of oxygen that can be removed from
    • circulating blood and used by the working tissues during a specified period.
    • The direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake is by far the most
    • VO2 Max is expressed in mL/kg/min.accurate method, but it
    • requires specialized equipment. Depending on the type of submaximal test administered, the
    • submaximal exercise test provides a reasonably accurate estimation of maximal oxygen uptake.

    • Important: to keep the test submaximal, the intensity should not exceed 85% of the heart rate
    • reserve (using the Karvonen Formula).
  114. Types of submaximal exercise tests
  115. • YMCA Submaximal Bicycle Test
    • • Ross Submaximal Treadmill Protocol
    • • YMCA Submaximal Step Test
    • • McArdle Step Test
    • • Rockport Fitness Walking Test (1-Mile Walk)
    • • BYU Jog Test
  116. Calculating Energy (Calorie) Expenditure
  117. To calculate energy expenditure, maximal oxygen
    • consumption (VO2 Max) must first be assessed. Oxygen consumption is linearly related to
    • energy expenditure. Since oxygen consumption is expressed in mL/kg/min, the trainer simply
    • needs to fill in the missing values to calculate energy expenditure:
    • • milliliters of oxygen (VO2 Max or percentage of VO2 Max)
    • • weight in kilograms
    • • total minutes of exercise
    • Conversion formulas:
    • • Calories: 1L O2 = 5 kilocalories
    • • Power: 1 MET = 3.5 mL O2/kg/min
    • • Weight: 1kg = 2.2#
    • • Volume: 1,000mL = 1L
  118. WFI Components
  119. 1. Medical
    • 2. Fitness
    • 3. Behavioral
    • 4. Rehabilitation (medical, fitness, behavioral, injury)
    • 5. Data Collection
  120. The Four Stages of the PFT/Client Relationship
  121. 1. Rapport
    • 2. Investigation
    • 3. Planning
    • 4. Action
  122. Scope of Practice
  123. 􀂃 Individual Assessment
    • 􀂃 Program Design
    • 􀂃 Program Implementation
    • 􀂃 Program Administration
  124. Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication
  125. 93% of communication is non-verbal
  126. axial skeleton
  127. (80 bones) is primarily for stabilization
  128. appendicular skeleton
  129. is primarily for movement
  130. Acromion Process
  131. (flat portion of shoulder
  132. Olecranon Process
  133. (process of the ulna – forms the outer bump – where triceps meet ulna
  134. Ischial Tuberosity
  135. (“sit bones”; area at base of ischium for hamstrings attachment
  136. Anterior Superior Iliac Spine [ASIS]
  137. (where the sartoris muscle originates
  138. Tibial Tuberosity
  139. (where the quadriceps attach to the tibia
  140. Greater Humeral Tuberosity
  141. site where pectoralis & rotator cuff muscles attach to humerus
  142. Sagittal
    any plane parallel to the median plane

    • Divides body into right and left parts; most flexion & extension occur in the
    • sagittal plane.
  143. Midsagittal (Median)
  144. separates body into right and left parts
  145. Frontal (Coronal)
  146. separates the body into anterior and posterior parts
    • 􀂃 Divides the body into front and back parts; most abduction & adduction occur in
    • the frontal plane.
  147. Transverse (Horizontal)
  148. separates the body into superior and inferior parts
    • 􀂃 Divides the body into top and bottom parts; most rotation occurs in the
    • transverse plane.
  149. Rectus Abdominis
  150. Primary Function: flexion and lateral flexion of the trunk
    Exercises: bent-knee sit-ups, partial curl-ups, good posture, pelvic tilts
  151. Obliques (External & Internal)
  152. Primary Function: lateral flexion of the trunk
    • Exercises: twisting bent-knee sit-ups (rotation opposite for external and rotation
    • same for internal) and curl ups
  153. Transversus Abdominis
  154. Primary Function: compresses abdomen
    Exercises: no motor function
  155. The Erector Spinae consists of three (3) main muscles:
  156. 1. Iliocastalis
    • 2. Longissimus
    • 3. Spinalis
    • Primary Function: extension of trunk
    • Exercises: squat, deadlift, prone back extension, good standing posture
  157. Clavicular Head (Upper Chest)

    Sternal Head (Lower Chest)
  158. Primary Function: flexion, adduction, internal rotation at the shoulder
    • Exercises: push-ups, pull-ups, incline bench press, regular bench press, climbing a
    • rope, all types of throwing, tennis serve
  159. Pectoralis Minor
  160. Primary Function: abduction, downward rotation, and depression of the scapula at the
    • shoulder
    • Exercises: flys, chest dips
  161. Anterior Deltoid
    Lateral Deltoid
    Posterior Deltoid
  162. Primary Function: abduction (entire deltoid), flexion/internal rotation (anterior),
    • extension/external rotation (posterior)
    • Exercises: lateral “butterfly” (abduction) exercises with dumbbells
    • Note: anterior deltoid has similar functions to pectoralis major
  163. Trapezius
    Upper Fibers Middle Fibers Lower Fibers
  164. Primary Function: elevation of scapula (upper), adduction of scapula (middle), depression of
    • scapula (lower)
    • Exercises: upright rowing, shoulder shrugs with resistance
  165. Levator Scapulae
  166. Primary Function: elevation of scapula
    • Exercises: shoulder shrugs with resistance
    • Note: the levator scapulae holds the scapula against the trunk
  167. Rhomboids (Major & Minor)
  168. Primary Function: adduction and elevation of scapula
    • Exercises: chin-ups, supported dumbbell bent-over rows
    • Note: The Rhomboids holds the scapula against the thoracic wall
  169. Latissimus Dorsi
  170. Primary Function: extension, adduction, internal rotation
    Exercises: chin-ups, rope-climbing, dips on parallel bars, rowing, “lat” pull-downs
  171. Teres Major
  172. Primary Function: shoulder extension, internal rotation, and shoulder adduction
  173. Rotator Cuff
  174. Primary Function: external rotation (infraspinatus and teres minor), internal rotation
    • (subscapularis), abduction (supraspinatus)
    • Exercises: tennis serve, throwing a baseball, internal and external rotation exercises
    • from prone position with dumbbells
    • Note: The supraspinatus is the most often injured rotator cuff muscle. The
    • inability to smoothly abduct the arm against resistance may indicate a
    • rotator cuff injury.
  175. Biceps Brachii
  176. Primary Function: flexion at elbow; supination at forearm
    Exercises: barbell curls, chin-ups, rock climbing, upright rowing with barbell
  177. Brachialis

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