Phys 1

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teatea2
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102815
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Phys 1
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2011-09-26 15:38:46
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Phys 1
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  1. What is something that is always happening at every moment? It is a physical and chemical events that release or use energy.
    Metabolism
  2. Requirements of the organisms that are essential to the maintenance of life?
    • water
    • food
    • oxygen
    • heat
    • pressure (blood/atmospheric)
  3. Maintenance of a stable internal environment is
    Homeostasis
  4. What do homeostatic mechanisms regulate? (Always trying to find balance...)
    • blood pressure
    • body temperature
    • blood glucose
    • respiratory rate
  5. What are the majority of homeostatic mechanisms controlled through?
    Negative feedback
  6. What is negative feedback?
    • The body's way of getting back into balance.
    • "Seeks to cancel the output that has caused it, this is known as a self-correcting loop"
    • Ex: temp. in the room (external environment) is too warm, the body will take this infomation as negative and it will regulate the body (using both voluntary and involuntary actions) until it gets back to 98.6°
  7. Approximately how many cells make up the human body?
    70-75 trillion
  8. What is a hypothetical cell that includes many known cell structures?
    Composit cell
  9. What are the three major parts to a cell?
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cell nucleus
  10. What are the key characteristics of a cell membrane?
    • thin & flexible (able to bend & contour to our shape)
    • composed MAINLY of lipids (fats)
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • some proteins
    • selectively permeable
    • signal transduction
    • intercellular junction
    • membrane proteins
  11. Selectively permeable?
    • O2, CO2, & lipids pass easily through cell membrane
    • aa, water, proteins, sugars, various ions do not pass through membrane as easily
  12. What is signal transduction?
    • receive and respond to incoming messages (get bigger/get smaller)
    • a signalling molecule activates a certain receptor on the cell membrane
    • causing a second messenger to continue the signal into the cell and elicit a physiological response.
  13. What are connections between cell membranes (i.e. skin cells) called?
    Intercellular junctions
  14. What are the intercellular junctions?
    • Tight junction (like a belt tightened around two ends of a cell)
    • Domesomes (like a spot weld, holding on tight)
    • Gap junction (tunnel connector from cell to cell - passes nutrients)
  15. What are membrane proteins?
    • Cell surface proteins
    • Identification/self
    • Cell adhesions molecules (CAMs)
    • Proteins that guide certain cells to a specific area
    • WBC guided to area of infection
    • Help cells bind to each other
  16. What are the key characteristics to Cytoplasm?
    • Contains organelles "workers"
    • -endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • -ribosomes
    • -golgi apparatus
    • -mitochondria
    • -lysosomes
    • -peroxisomes
    • -centrosomes
    • -vesicles
    • -microfilaments & microtubules
  17. Which of the organelles is the communication & transport system within the cell? It also participates in protein & lipid synthesis.
    endoplasmic reticulum
  18. "Rough" orgnaells, tiny spherical structures that are composed of protein. (not part of the membrane)
    Ribosomes
  19. The Fed-Ex of the organells. Flattened, membranous sacs that refine, package and deliveres proteins synthesized on the rough ER.
    Golgi apparatus
  20. An organell that is shaped like enlongated fluid filled sacks, synthesizes the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell, known as the "powerhouse" of the cell because it creates energy for the cell to use. A typical cell has about 1700 of them, but cells with higher energy requirements have many thousand in them.
    Mitochondira
  21. An organell that is know as the "garbage dispoals" of the cell, where enzymes dismantle debris.
    Lysosomes
  22. Organell that are membranous sacks that resemble lysosomes in shape and size. Most abundantly found in the liver and kidneys. They contain enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide (which is a toxic waste to cells)
    Peroxisomes
  23. Organell known as the "central body" or "cell churro", plays an important role during cell division. It is located close to the nucleus and consists of two cylinders, or tube like structures or mirotubes, that lie at a right angle to eachother. During cell division they migrate to either side fo the nucleus...
    Centrosome
  24. Organell's that are membranous sacs that vary in size and contents. They may form when a portion fo the cell membrane folds inward and pinches off. As a result, a bubble like thing containing some liquid or solid formerly OUTSIDE the cell in INSIDE the cell or cytoplasm. (End of a neuron)
    Vesicles
  25. Two types of threadlike structures in the cell. One is composed of tiny rodsof the protein that typically form meshwork or bundles that provide certain cellular movements. (shortening/cntracting of cells). The other are long, slinder tubes with larger diamerters. They are composed of a globular protein, making them more ridigid so they help maintain the shape of the cell. (Like the rebar in concrete)
    Microfilaments & microtubules
  26. "Control tower" of the cell
    Cell nucleus
  27. Nucleolus
    A dense structure in the nucleus, largely composed of RNA and protein. Produces ribosomes.
  28. Chromatin (chromosome)
    Consists of loosley coiled fibers in the nuclear fluid. These fibers are composed of continuous DNA molecules wrapped around clusters fo proteins called histones, like beads in a string. They get more compacted during cell division and become rod like in structure. "Colored body" "Colored substance"
  29. Cell extensions, cylindrical, hair like, fringe like, attaches just beneath the cell membrane to the basal body. Move in a to and fro manner, creating a wave - ex propelling muscus over the lining fo the respratory tract. Present in larghe #'s. Short.
    Cilia
  30. Single (one per cell) , longer, (only found in sperm).
    Flagella
  31. A barrier that controls which substances enter and leave a cell.
    O2 and water IN
    CO2 and waste OUT
    Cell membrane
  32. What is a movement of molecules (not water) from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration.

    Ex: Sugar cubes in water or food coloring in water
    Diffusion
  33. What uses energy and a carrier protein (bouncer at the club door) to move molecules from and area of high concintration to low consintration?
    Facilitated diffusion
  34. What is the diffusion of WATER molecules across a selectively permeable membrane?
    Osmosis
  35. When molecules are foced through a membrane (ex: making coffee or blood vessels)
    Filtration
  36. When energy and carrier proteins are used to move molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration?
    Active transport
  37. Molecules/particles that are too large to move through other methods, enter the cell through
    Endocytosis
  38. Cell "drinking" - liquid
    pinocytosis
  39. Cell "eating" (WBC) -solids
    Phagocytosis
  40. Molecules/particle that are too large to move through other methods, exit the cell throuhg...
    Exocytosis
  41. A combination of endo/exocytosis, something enters the cell, changes, and then leaves.
    Transcytosis
  42. The series of changes a cell undergoes form the time it forms until the time it reproduces
    The cell cycle
  43. IPMAT
    Interesting, people, make, awesome, teachers
  44. Interphase
    Duplication of cell contents (Prepping for reproduction), very active period, chromosomes (DNA) and organells
  45. Mitosis
    • Cell division, (includes the PMAT or IPMAT)
    • New cells have 46 chromosomes
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • Telophase
  46. The phase of cell division where chromosomes appear and spindle fibers form on centrosomes
    Prophase
  47. The phase of cell division where chromosomes align midway between centrioles and spindles attach to chromosomes
    Metaphase
  48. Phase of cell division where duplicated chromosomes separate
    Anaphase
  49. The final stage of cell division, 2 cells, chromosomes unwind and become chromatin
    Telophase
  50. Name 4 of the 10 characteristics of life
    • movement
    • responsiveness
    • digestion
    • reproduction
    • execretion
    • circulation
    • assimilation
    • absorption
    • circulation
    • respiration
    • growth
    • excretion
  51. Define metabolism
    Physical/chemical events that release energy, happening constantly
  52. What is the term used to describe the maintenance of a stable internal environment?
    Homeostasis
  53. How are most homestatic mechanisms/processes controlled?
    Negative feedback
  54. What are the 3 major parts of a cell?
    • Nuvleus
    • Membrane
    • Cytoplasm
  55. What is contained in the cytoplasm?
    Organells
  56. What is the name for the movement of water across a selectively/semi permeable membrane?
    Osmosis (High to low water)
  57. How do molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration?
    Diffusion
  58. What is the definition of active transport?
    movement of molecules (with help of carrier proteins & energy) from an area of low concentration to high concentration
  59. During cell division, what portion involves the most activity?
    Enterphase
  60. What is the term used to describe the expression of different genes within the cell, instructing that cell to become a certain type of cell?
    Cell differentiation
  61. What is the term used to describe movement of a molecule that is too large to enter through normal circumstances?
    Endocytosis (in) or exocytosis (out)

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