Geography Vocabulary

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Geography Vocabulary
2011-09-19 17:09:33
geography vocabulary

Basic Geography Vocabulary
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  1. Archipelago
    Islands clustered together (Aegean Archipelago, Europe).
  2. Arctic Circle
    Imaginary line about 66 degrees north of the equator. North of this line the climate is very cold and harsh.
  3. Atoll
    Coral reef enclosing a lagoon (Gilber Islands, Oceania).
  4. Basin
    1. Area of land that is lower than surrounding land (Great Basin, North America). 2. Area drained by river system (Amazon Basin, South America).
  5. Bay
    Area of an ocean, sea, lake, etc., that extends into the land. Bays are usually smaller than gulfs (San Francisco Bay, North America).
  6. Canyon
    Deep, narrow, steep-sided valley, often with a river on its floor (Grand Canyon, North America).
  7. Cape
    Piece of land extending beyond the rest of the shoreline into the ocean (Cape of Good Hope, Africa).
  8. Climate
    All the weather that occurs in an area over a lond period of time. It is usually described as a combination of temperature and precipitation.
  9. Continent
    Huge land mass. There are seven continents. Five-Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America-are divided into countries. One, Australia is a continent and a country. The last, Antarctica, does not have any permanent inhabitants.
  10. Country
    Any independent nation with a name and boundary. Except for Australia, countries are smaller than continents. Russia, Canada, China, and the United States are the world's largest countries in area. China and India are the largest countries in population.
  11. Delta
    Triangular-shaped area of small islands of sediment that divide a river into smaller parts at its mouth (Nile River Delta, Africa).
  12. Desert
    Dry area which receives such a small amount of precipitation that little or no plant or animal life can survive there permanently. Deserts may be very hot (Sahara, Africa) or very cold (Antarctica).
  13. Equator
    Imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the poles.
  14. Geography
    Study of the features of the earth and of the places where plants and animals live and how they affect and are affected by their environments.
  15. Glacier
    Huge mass of slowly moving ice (Malaspina Glacier, North America).
  16. Gulf
    Large part of an ocean that extends into the land. A gulf is usually larger than a bay (Persian Gulf, Asia).
  17. Hemisphere
    One half of the earth. When divided at the equator, the two halves are the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. When divided from pole to pole, the two halves are the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe) and the Western Hemisphere (North and South America).
  18. Hill
    Land that rises to a summit no more than 1,000 feet (305 m) above the surrounding area.
  19. Island
    Land completely surrounded by water (Madagascar, Africa).
  20. Isthmus
    Narrow neck of land connecting two larger areas of land (Isthmus of Panama connecting North and South America).
  21. Lake
    A body of water surrounded by land. Lakes are usually filled with fresh water (Lake Superior, North America).
  22. Mountain
    Land that rises higher than hills above surrounding area (Himalayas, Asia).
  23. Mouth
    The lower end of a river where it flows into another body of water (Huang He at Bo Hai, Asia).
  24. Ocean
    Huge area of salt water. The five oceans (Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, Southern) cover almost three-fourths of the earth's surface.
  25. Peninsula
    Area of land almost surrounded by water (Malay Peninsula, Asia).
  26. Plain
    Large area of flat or gently rolling, treeless land (Great Plains, North America).
  27. Plateau
    Large area of level land that is higher than surrounding land. Plateaus are often cut by canyons, and a mountain system is usuallylocated on at least one edge (Plateau of Tibet, Asia).
  28. Poles
    Northern and southernmost points on the earth. The North Pole is on an icecap of the Arctic Ocean and the South Pole is on Antarctica.
  29. Prairie
    Flat or rolling land with few trees but covered with grasses.
  30. Precipitation
    Rain, hail, sleet, snow, and other types of moisture that fall to earth.
  31. River
    Large amount of flowing fresh water (Nile River, Africa).
  32. Savanna
    Dry area of flat or rolling land that supports grasses but few trees. Savannas are located in tropical and subtropical areas.
  33. Sea
    Part of an ocean that has been identified by geographers as a distinct body of water with a name (Mediterranean Sea, Europe/Africa)
  34. Steppe
    Large area that experiences very hot and very cold temperatures and little precipitation but supports hardy grasses and other plants.
  35. Strait
    narrow bodu of water that connects two larger bodies of water (Strait of Gibraltar connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea).
  36. Summit
    Highest point on a hill or mountain.
  37. Swamp
    Area of land that is very wet year round and in which trees and shrubs grow (Everglades, North America).
  38. Tributary
    Stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river. A river and its tributaries form a river system (Madeira River, South America).
  39. Tundra
    Treeless plain close to or above the Arctic Circle. Some vegetation grows in the topsoil when it thaws in summer, but the subsoil is frozen.
  40. Valley
    Long, low-lying area usually located between ranges of hills or mountains (Sacramento Valley, North America).
  41. Volcano
    Cone-shaped mountain formed by lava and or other materials that have erupted from the interior of the earth (Mount Fuji, Asia).