Evaluation: Make sure interventions have done what we intended them to do and make a new plan if necessary.
Includes several physiologic events:Ventilation
Regulated by the ANS with some Voluntary Control
Rate and depth change in response to body's demands (running, sleeping, etc...) - Inhibition/Stimulation of resp. centers in the medulla and pons; Chemoreceptors in the carotids and aortic arch (sensing more more CO2) send stretch & irritant receptors in the lungs. All controlled by the ANS.
Measured in breaths/min - Normal range for adult is 12-20 breaths/min
Factors effecting Respirations
Age: know parameters for different age groups - Anything resp. rate > 60 is abnormal regardless of age.
Exercise: Increase during exercise which decreases the resp. rate at rest.
Disease Processes: COPD, etc...
Acid-Base Imbalances: Acidosis - excess gases are "blown off" by increasing respirations (usually shallow).