HIST Final Exam

The flashcards below were created by user MikeChance on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Byzantine Empire
    Eastern Roman Empire that did not fall with the West. Population was higher and there was more money. The capitol city was Constantinople, named after Emperor Constanstine. It was a very defendable city on the water with fortified walls considered to be unbreachable. It survived for 900 years after the fall of Western Rome. Enemies of Constantinople chipped away until only Capitol city was left. It was known that if Constantinople fell, Rome would fall.
  2. Justinian
    Emporer of the Byzantine Emperor who brought the Empire to its height. Believed he was the most religous figure. He believed and told his subjects that God chose him to be the empire, so if you doubt me you are doubting God's will. This allowed him control over his subjects.
  3. What was the greatest accomplishment of Emporer Justinian?
    He created a legal system called "Corpus Juris Rule". He had his legal scholars create most up to date legal system to date.
  4. Theodora
    The wife of Emporer Justinian. She was not of noble blood. She was a dancer. She was also a very close advisor to Emporer Justinian with regards to Financial, Social and Legal issues. It is believed that if it weren't for his wife, Justinian would not have been as successful. He actually wanted her to attend his meetings for her council.
  5. What warefare did Emporer Justinian partake in?
    He lauched a campaign against the Germanic tribes to reclaim portians of Western Rome. He was successful; however, in the end the Germanic tribes took much of the lands back.
  6. Who were the enemies of the Byzantine Empire?
  7. What type of battle did the Muslims wage against the Byzantine Empire?
    The Muslims challenged the Roman Navy to a battle. The Muslims did not know the Roman Navy posessed a weapon called the "Greek Fire". The Muslims attacked from the East and the Byzantines successfully repulsed them.
  8. Was the regligion of the Byzantine Empire?
    Greek Orthodox. They did not have a Pope and refused to show allegience to the Pope in Rome. They allowed their clergy to marry.
  9. What was the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church?
    They dispised eachother.
  10. What year did the Byzantine Empire fall and to who?
    It fell in the year 1453 A.D. to the Ottoman Turks.
  11. What do Historians say about the Byzantine Empire with regards to Islam?
    Historians say that the Byzantine Empire kept Islam from spreading to Europe.
  12. Islam?
    Term meaning "submission/surrender to God".
  13. Who was the number one figure for Islam?
    Mohammed born 570 A.D.
  14. Mohammed was/is regarded as what to the Muslims?
    Considered to be a great prophet (not the same as Jesus Christ). He was 100 percent man. At 40 years of age, he was visited by the Angel "Gabriel" with a message of Faith (Islam).
  15. The Muslim faith reached paper in a book called?
    The Quran.
  16. What is the Quran believed to be?
    It is believed by the Muslims to be the words of God (Allah).
  17. Hadith?
    A collection of varias litterary works/stories attributed to Mohammed. It is believed that one of his wives wrote the document.
  18. What are the "five pillars of faith" with regards to Islam?
    • 1. Pray five times a day
    • 2. Pilgramidge to Mecca
    • 3. Give to the needy
    • 4. Partake in Rammadan
    • 5. Statement of Faith
  19. What happens to a Muslim who practices the "five pillars of faith"?
    It is believed that you will go to Heaven. If you do not practice these pillars, you will go to hell with the wicked.
  20. Who's name is mentioned more times in the Quran than in the Bible?
    Jesus Christ.
  21. Hegira?
    A latin word meaning "flight". Mohammed and his followers fled to Mecca in 622 A.D.
  22. What problems did Prophet Mohammed encounter while in Mecca?
    He engaged and lost debates theological debates with Jewish scholars. He was often humiliated. Mohammed began to target limited Jews often beheading them and selling off their families.
  23. Name an important characteristic of the Muslims faith?
    Muslims believe that the government should be a "Theocracy" ruled by an individual known as a "Caliph" holding an office called a "Caliphate".
  24. What split the Islamic faith?
    The split was caused by two schools of thought on how to choose the next "Caliphate".

    • 1. Most qualified (Sunni)
    • 2. Direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed (Shi'a)

    There were three instances where Sunni's would kill descendants of the Prophet Mohammed which added to the rift.
  25. Muslim Golden Age?
    Muslims saw a spike in learning in the Muslim world. There were Scientific, Optic and Medical adances. Such as pain relieving properties and successful amputations. There were serveral Mathmatical advances. Arabic numerals contributed to our numbering system.
  26. What was significant about the fact that the Muslims could not penetrate and conquer the Byzantines?
    It contributed to the flourish of European Culture in the West.
  27. What group gained power and took over the Western Roman Empire?
    The Franks.
  28. Who was the first great leader who united the Franks into one kingdom?
  29. Clovis?
    A Frankish Emporer who converted to Christianity. Embraced the "Greek Classical Tradition". If not, the "Greek Classical Tradition" would have been lost. Clovis expanded the boarders of the Frankish Empire through warefare.
  30. Clovis was succeeded by who?
    Charles the Great A.K.A (Charlemagne).
  31. which group gained power and took over the Western Roman Empire?
  32. Who was the Frankish leader that united the Franks into one kingdom?
  33. What religion did Clovis convert to?
  34. What did the Franks do upon taking over Western Rome? This was significant.
    They embraced the Classical Tradition.
  35. What was one thing that King Clovis achieved during his reign?
    He expanded the Frankish Boarders.
  36. Charlemagne was considered to be a great King true or false?
  37. What was Charlemagne considered a great King?
    He devided his kingdom into 100 eventually 300 sections known as "counties".
  38. What was the official title of the individuals in charge of these sections?
  39. Missi Dominici
    A small Royal envoy used by Charlemagne to collect information on persons or counts who would conspire against him.
  40. What was the composition of the Missi Dominici?
    Bishop or Clergy men.
  41. What is Christendom?
    A European Christian civilization comprised of Germanic, Christians and Romans.
  42. What did each of the components bring to the Christendom?
    • 1. Germanics brought Customs and Traditions.
    • 2. Christians brought faith.
    • 3. Romans brought Roman practices regarding administration and laws.
  43. What event marked the beginning of Christendom?
    On Christmas Day Charlemagne had a crowned placed on his head by the Pope declaring him "Emperor of Romans".
  44. What additional duties did Charlemagne take on once being declared "Emporer of the Romans"?
    Protecting the Christian Faith.
  45. How did the beginning of Christendom effect the Pope's power?
    He had "faith" and the "sword" or an Army.
  46. Who succeeded Charlemagne?
    Loni the Pias.
  47. What happened after Loni the Pias's death?
    The Frankish Empire was separated amongst his three sons who were weak rulers.
  48. What eventually happens to the Frankish Empire?
    It crumbles leaving the 300 sections to be ruled by the counts.
  49. Fuedalism?
    A indepent demacracy with no centralized Government. The legal system that took place after the collapse of the Frankish Kingdom.
  50. During the period of Fuedalism, what happened the sections orginally established by Charlemagne?
    The Areas were called Manors. Persons that ruled this area was called the Manorial Lord.
  51. What were the two classes of people during Fuedalism?
    Upper and Lower class, there was no middle class during this time.
  52. What happened to warefare during the period of Fuedalism.
    Manorial Lords who have a gentleman known as a knight pledge his allegience to him and fight for his kingdom or manor. During this period warefare was considered only fit for the upperclass or gentlemen.
  53. What is a Vassel?
    A vassal was someone who pledged their allegience to the Manorial Lord of a Manor. This was normally Bishops and Knights and in return they recieved a fief.
  54. What is a Fief?
    A piece of land given to the Vassels of the Manorial Lord. Every structure and person on this "fief" belonged to that vassel.
  55. What is a serf?
    A person similar to a slave known that made up the lower class during the period of Feudalism. They lived hand to mouth and could not be moved off their land.
  56. Following Fuedalism who remained Centralized and who remained De-Centralized?
    France and England recovered from Fuedalism and Germany and Italy continued with Fuedalism.
  57. Who was theoretically in charge of Italy and Germany following Feudalism?
    Otto The Great.
  58. What was the office that Otto The Great established known as?
    Holy Roman Emporer
  59. What kind of power did Otto The Great really have?
    Relatively zero power.
  60. What was the most powerful entity or person during the High Middle Ages?
    The catholic church and or Pope. It was during the High Middle Ages that the Catholic Church would reach its "Zenith of Power".
  61. What problems arised between the Pope and the Manorial Lords during the High Middle Ages?
    Lay investiture. Basically who had the authority to make a clergy or a bishop. Ultimately a deal was struck between the Pope and the Manorial Lords. The Pope gave the Bishop a Ring and Staff and the Manorial Lord gave the Bishop a Sceptor making him upper class.
  62. What was created during the High Middle Ages to decide who the next Pope would be?
    Coucil of Cardinals. Survives still today.
  63. Who was the Pope during the height of Catholic Church's power?
    Pope Innocent III.
  64. What was a famous quote by Pope Innocent III?
    "The Pope judges all and is judged by none".
  65. What are some of the things that Pope Innocent III brought to the Catholic church or established?
    Confessions, Commanded all leaders to punish crimes against God, started practices of burning at the stake, instituted church doctrine known as "Transubstantiation" or the 7 Holy Sacriments.
  66. What does Transubstantiation stand for?
    If a person is right with God and the clergy conducted the communion is ordained. The bread the believeer consumes becomes the body of Christ and the wine the believer consumes becomes the blood of Christ.
  67. Encharist?
    Means Cummunion in which the clergy prepares.
  68. Crusades?
    Series of relgious conflicts where church dispatched Armies to take back lands belonging to the Church from Muslims.
  69. How many major Crusades were there?
  70. What was the first Crusade?
    Jerusalem. It was a great success; however, the Church did not leave enough people in the city to maintained control and eventually Muslims took it back over.
  71. What were the reasons young men joined the Crusades?
    • To get to Heaven (good in God's eyes)
    • Do it for religion
    • Pilgramidge to Jerusalem
    • Adventure
  72. What were the good things that happend as a result of the Crusades?
    • Spike in trade between and East and West.
    • Renewed intrest in ancient Egypt and historic greatness of the area.
  73. What happened during the next 6 Crusades?
    They were failures. The leadership fought amongst eachother. Everyone wanted to be in charge.
  74. Which persons were created with the creation of Trial by Jury (12 People) and Grand Jury (24 People)?
    Henry I and Henry II.
  75. Who succeeded Henry II and spent most of his reign away from England?
    King Richard (A.K.A Richard the Lion Hearted).
  76. King John?
    Succeeded Richard the Lion Hearted. Deemed out of control by the nobles of his reign. His hand was forced to sign the Magna Carta "Great Charter" limiting the King's power as a result.
  77. During the High Middle Ages what class of people re-emerged as a result of towns?
    Middle Class.
  78. 1 Year, 1 Day Rule?
    If a Serf escaped and remained uncaptured for more than 1 Year and 1 Day he/she were free.
  79. Who wrote the "Greatest of Era" devine comedy?
  80. During what portion of the Middle Ages was the "waterwheel" discovered? How was this significant?
    Late Middle Ages. Used water to generate power to spin stones to grind corn, wheat and pulp for paper.
  81. What was the primary cause of famine during the high middle ages?
    Excess rain and early frosts. 1 in 10 people died during the 2 year period of famine.
  82. What are the different types of Black Death?
    • Bubonic (Bumps)
    • Puenmatic (Lungs)
    • Septicemic (Blood Stream)
  83. What was the worst period of the Black Death and how many people were effected?
    The first four years. 1/4 - 1/3 of all Europeans died.
  84. What was the prominent school of thought for the cause of the Black Death?
    "God is Mad".
  85. During the 100 years war why were the Britains successful during the majority of engagements?
    They used Soldiers known as Longbowmen.
  86. What unique weapons did France posess during the 100 years war?
    The crossbow.
  87. Battle of Agincourt?
    British Soldiers claimed to have received help by British ghosts.
  88. Who continued the work of John Wycliffe?
    A Bohemian man named John Hus. He was tricked by the Catholic church and killed.
  89. Renaissance?
    A French word meaning "re-birth". Only portions of Europe experienced this and mainly in the cities involving the upper classes.
  90. Where did the Renaissance begin?
    Florence Italy.
  91. What did the people do during the Rennaissance?
    Rediscovery/re-embracing of the "Classical Tradition". A strife for excellence to be remembered.
  92. Giotto?
    Italian painter dubbed "The father of Rennaissance Painting". Introduced "fresco"-painting on wet plaster pare, 3D painting and Chirascuro (shading/lights to apply realism).
  93. Michelangelo?
    Panted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and constructed the sculpture of David.
  94. Da Vinci?
    Painted the Last Supper. Dubbed the Most multi-talented man of the "Rennaissance Period". Described himself as a scientists.
  95. Rafhael?
    Panted "The School of Athens". Often painted himself in his paintings.
  96. Donatello?
    Known as "Father of Renaissance Sculpture". Cast sculpture of David in Bronze. First bronze work since classical Greece.
  97. Valla?
    Exposed corruption at high levels in the Catholic Church - "Donation of Constantine". Fraud about land supposedly given to the papacy. Documents were fraudulent.
  98. Yohan Gutenberg?
    German who invented the printing press. A monumental invention during the Renaissance.
Card Set
HIST Final Exam
HIST Final Exam
Show Answers