IPAP A&PII Respiratory

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IPAP A&PII Respiratory
2011-09-19 23:35:05
IPAP Respiratory system

IPAP Class 2-11 Respiratory System (Daigle's Review)
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  1. Name the blood vessel that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart into the lungs
    Pulmonary trunk (or pulmonary arteries)
  2. Name the blood vessel that transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
    Pulmonary veins
  3. What are 2 characteristics of pulmonary blood vessels (including small arteries and arterioles) that increase blood flow through the lungs and maintain a low resistance to blood flow?
    • 1. Distensibility
    • 2. Larger Diameter
  4. The airways, from the nose to the terminal bronchioles are known as what?
    Conducting Zone
  5. What is the zone of the respiratory system where gas diffusion occurs?
    Respiratory zone
  6. What is the primary function of the nose?
    Conditioning inhaled air
  7. What are the areas of the airways that contain cilia?
    • 1. Nose
    • 2. Nasopharynx
    • 3. Larynx
    • 4. Trachea
    • 5. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Bronchi
    • 6. Smaller bronchioles (not including terminal and respiratory bronchioles)
  8. What is the cartilage that forms the anterior laryngeal wall?
  9. What is the hyaline cartilage ring that is located at the end of the larynx?
    Cricoid Cartilage
  10. What is the soft tissue that connects the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage?
    Cricothyroid Membrane (Ligament)
  11. The Cricothryoid Membrane (ligament) is commonly used for an emergency airway in a procedure known as what?
    Cricothyroidotomy or Tracheotomy
  12. What is the are within the airways that is the most sensitive area for stimulating the cough reflex?
  13. What are the airways that transport air into each lung?
    Primary Bronchi
  14. What are the airways that transport air into each lung lobe?
    Lobar (Secondary Bronchi)
  15. What are the airways that transport air into each lung segment?
    Segmental (Tertiary Bronchi)
  16. What are the largest airways within the respiratory zone?
    Respiratory bronchioles
  17. Cartilage is replaced by what tissue as the bronchioles get smaller?
    Smooth Muscle
  18. Terminal bronchioles do not contain cilia. Inhaled particles that reach the terminal bronchioles are removed by what?
  19. Lungs are anatomically separated by what body compartment?
    The Mediastinum
  20. The tapered superior aspect of each lung is known as what?
    The Apex
  21. The concave inferior aspect of each lung is known as what?
    The Base
  22. The left lung has a depression on the medial surface; what is it called?
    Cardiac Notch
  23. Name the part of the pleural sac that lines each pleural cavity.
    Parietal Pleura
  24. Name the part of the pleural sac that covers each lung.
    Visceral pleura
  25. Pressure within the pleural cavity is normally _____________.
  26. Does the pleural cavity contain air?
  27. What purpose(s) does pleural fluid serve?
    It allows the visceral pleura to slide against the parietal pleura without friction
  28. Pleural fluid is derived from what type of body fluid?
  29. Pleural fluid is constantly being produced and drained from the pleural cavity. What structure(s) drain the pleural cavity?
    Lymphatic Capillaries
  30. Where does the pleural fluid drained by the lymphatic capillaries go after being drained?
    It is returned to the blood circulation
  31. What physical force normally keeps the visceral and parietal pleural in contact with each other?
    Surface Tension
  32. What is pleurisy?
    Inflammation of the pleural membrane; has infectious and non-infectious etiologies; excess pleural fluid may or may not be associated with pleurisy
  33. Name the condition where excess pleural fluid builds up in the pleural cavity.
    Pleural Effusion
  34. Name the fissure in the left lung that separates the superior from the inferior lobe.
    Oblique Fissure
  35. Where is the horizontal fissure located and what lobes does it separate?
    It is located in the right lung and it separates the superior from the middle lobe
  36. The anterior surface of each lung is mostly composed of which lobe?
  37. How may segments are contained in each lung?
    Ten (10)
  38. Each lung segment is composed of smaller structures known as what?
  39. What are the structures contained in each lobule?
    • 1. Pulmonary Arteriole
    • 2. Pulmonary Venule
    • 3. Lymph Vessel
    • 4. A branch of the terminal bronchiole
  40. Name the 2 structures within the lung where gas diffusion occurs.
    • 1. Alveoli
    • 2. Respiratory Bronchioles
  41. Name the 2 cell types that comprise the alveolar wall.
    Type I and Type II
  42. Of the 2 cell types that comprise the alveolar wall, which cell type produces alveolar fluid?
    Type II
  43. Of the 2 cell types that comprise the alveolar wall, which cell type is most numerous?
    Type I
  44. What is a characteristic of a Type I cell of the alveolar wall?
    It is a very flat cell
  45. Alveolar fluid contains a substance that is composed of phospholipids and lipoproteins which is known as what?
  46. What is the function of surfactant?
    It decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid (it does not totally eliminate surface tension)
  47. What is another name for dust cells?
    Alveolar Macrophages
  48. What is the function of fibroblasts in alveolar walls?
    They produce elastic fibers that help maintain the shape of the alveolar wall
  49. Name the 4 layers of the respiratory membrane, in sequence, from the alveolar air space to the intravascular space.
    • 1. Alveolar Wall
    • 2. Alveolar Basement Membrane
    • 3. Capillary Basement Membrane
    • 4. Capillary Endothelium
  50. What are 2 characteristics of the respiratory membrane that enhance gas diffusion?
    • 1. It is thin
    • 2. It has a large surface area
  51. Which circulation provides most blood flow to the lungs?
  52. What characteristic of the pulmonary vascular bed keeps blood flow resistance and blood pressure low?
    High compliance
  53. What is external respiration?
    Diffusion of O2 from alveolar air into alveolar capillary blood and diffusion of CO2 from alveolar capillary blood into the alveolar air
  54. What is internal respiration?
    Diffusion of O2 from systemic Capillary blood into tissue cells and diffusion of CO2 from tissue cells into systemic capillary blood
  55. The bronchial circulation receives blood from what majore blood vessel?
    The Aorta
  56. Is the blood that the bronchial circulation receives from the Aorta oxygenated?
  57. A human has how many bronchial arteries?
    Usually 3
  58. What are the lung structures that receive blood flow from the bronchial arteries?
    Bronchi and connective tissue of the lungs (and to the esophagus from branching vessels)
  59. Blood pressure and resistance to blood flow in the bronchial circulation is much higher than in the pulmonary circulation; why?
    Bronchial arteries have lower compliance
  60. Most blood transported to the lungs via the bronchial arteries is transported from the lungs via what vessel(s)?
    Bronchial veins
  61. A small amount of blood transported to the lungs via the bronchial arteries is transported from the lungs after mixing with blood in which pulmonary vessel(s)?
    Pulmonary veins
  62. What is the name of the blood flow that flows through the pulmonary vessels?
    Venous Admixture
  63. What are 2 reasons why pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) must remain low?
    • 1. So the right side of the heart doesn't have to work as hard to pump blood to the lungs
    • 2. To insure blood flow and O2 delivery to tissues is optimal
  64. What are the 2 anatomic factors that decrease blood flow resistance in the lungs?
    • 1. Large number of vessels
    • 2. Vessel length is short
  65. What are the 2 events that occur that maintain blood flow resistance in the lungs when increased blood flow to the lungs increases blood pressure within the pulmonary arteries?
    • 1. Recruitment of alveolar capillaries
    • 2. Distention of alveolar capillaries
  66. When is blood flow optimal during breathing?
    Approximately midway between a full inhalation and full exhalation.
  67. How does low alveolar oxygen (decreased alveolar pO2) affect pulmonary arterioles?
    The constrict
  68. How does constriction of pulmonary arterioles in when alveolar oxygen is low affect blood flow in the normally-functioning areas of the lung?
    Blood flow to functioning alveoli increases
  69. What is meant by the ventilation gradient increases from apex to base?
    More atmospheric air moves into alveoli during inhalation as you progress from the lung apices to the bases
  70. In what lung zone is blood flow greatest and why?
    Zone 3; Gravitational pull
  71. In what lung zone is blood flow minimal?
    Zone 1
  72. Define V/Q ratio
    The relationship between ventilation and blood flow through lung zones
  73. For each lung zone, list the V/Q ratio.
    • 1. Zone 2: 1
    • 2. Zone 1: >1
    • 3. Zone 3: <1
  74. In which zone is ventilation and perfusion most closely matched?
    Zone 2
  75. Can blood flow through alveolar capabillities occur in parts of the lung that are not receiving flow?
    Yes (as long as there is no resistance to blood flow, it will continue because of the lower O2 in these areas, pulmonary arterioles do partially constrict). This is an example of V/Q mismatch
  76. Why can positive pressure within the pulmonary interstitial spaces damaage alveolar walls?
    Alveolar walls are very thin and the cells that compose the alveolar wall are very fragile
  77. Explain why the normal pressure within the pulmonary interstitial spaces is negative.
    Interstitial fluid is constantly being drained by the lymphatic capillaries. Pressure inside the lymphatic capillaries is negative.
  78. What is excess fluid in pulmonary interstitial spaces known as?
    Pulmonary Edema
  79. What is the normal alveolar air pressure?
    2 mmHg (when the individual is midway between an inhalation and an exhalation)
  80. What is pulmonary ventillation?
    Inhalation and exhalation of air from the atmosphere into the lungs without gas diffusion
  81. Why is inhalation an active process?
    Because it requires the use of muscles
  82. What must the pressure be in the lungs be before atmospheric air can move in?
    Lower than air
  83. What must the pressure in the lungs be before inhaled air is exhaled?
    Higher than atmospheric air
  84. Define Boyle's Law.
    Gas pressure in a closed container is inversely proportional to the container volume
  85. What is the most important muscle of inhalation?
    The Diaphragm
  86. Contraction of which muscle of inhalation increases the anterior-posterior (AP) diamter of the thorax?
    External intercostals
  87. Contraction of which muscle of inhalation increases the vertical diameter of the thorax?
    the diaphragm
  88. Increasing the pressure gradient during forceful, strenuous inhalation has what effect on the rate of airflow into the lungs?
    It increases the airflow rate
  89. What is the intrapleural pressure (inside the pleural cavity) just prior to inhalation (in mmHg)?
    approximately 756 mmHg
  90. What are 2 factors that facilitate contact between the parietal and visceral pleura?
    • 1. Surface tension of pleural fluid
    • 2. Sub-atmospheric pressure within the pleural space
  91. Describe how lung tissue is pulled outward during inhalation (it has to do with the visceral and parietal pleura).
    Expansion of the thorax pulls the parietal pleura outward and because the visceral and parietal pleura are in contact with each other due to surface tension, the visceral pleura is pulled outward along with the parietal pleura
  92. Air in the pleural cavity has what effect on intrapleural pressure?
    it increases
  93. Describe how a tension pneumothorax affects blood flow to and from the heart.
    As more air enters the pleural space, the heart is more compressed. This interferes with blood flow in the great vessels and interferes with normal filling of the heart chambers with blood.
  94. What are the 3 accessory muscles of inhalation?
    • 1. Sternocleidomastoids
    • 2. Scalenes
    • 3. Pectoralis Minor
  95. You are a PA examining a patient who is experiencing an asthma attack. You note the use of accessory muscles of inhalation. Should you be concerned and why or why not?
    Yes. Use of accessory muscles of inhalation in this situation indicates that the patient is not ventilating the lungs well. In some cases, this indicates impending respiratory arrest.
  96. Is quiet exhalation an active or passive process?
  97. What are 2 factors that decrease lung volume during exhalation?
    • 1. Elastic recoil of the chest wall and lung tissue
    • 2. Alveolar fluid surface tension
  98. Decreasing lung volume during exhalation has what effect on alveolar air pressure?
    It increases
  99. What are 2 muscles (or muscle groups) that are used during forceful exhalation?
    • 1. Abdominals
    • 2. Internal intercostals
  100. What are the 3 major factors affecting airflow rate and effort required for breathing?
    • 1. Alveolar fluid surface tension
    • 2. Lung compliance
    • 3. Airway resistance
  101. Why do alveoli assum the smallest diameter during exhalation?
    Alveolar fluid surface tension
  102. What are 2 factors that contribute to compliance of healthy lungs?
    • 1. Elasticity of lung tissue
    • 2. Surfactant in alveolar fluid
  103. What effect does surfactant in alveolar fluid have on alveolar surface tension?
    It decreases
  104. What are 2 factors that affect the rate of airflow into the lungs?
    • 1. Difference in partial pressure of atmospheric air and alveolar air
    • 2. Airway resistance to airflow
  105. What is the formula for Ohm's law?
    Q = Pressure gradient / R or Flow = pressure difference / airway
  106. Factors affecting airway resistance are explained by what law of physics?
    Poiseulle's Law
  107. Airway resistance is directly proportional to what?
    Airway length
  108. Airway resistance is inversely proportional to what?
    the radius (diameter) of the airway
  109. How does acetylcholine affect airway resistance to airflow?
    It increases
  110. What is the sympathetic neurotransmitter substance that causes bronchodilation?
  111. A patient's ventilatory function is assessed by what diagnostic modality?
  112. What is measured during a spirometry?
    The patient's measured lung volumes are compared to predicted values
  113. What are 3 characteristics that are used to create predicted lung volumes for a particular patient?
    • 1. Age
    • 2. Height
    • 3. Gender
  114. What is the normal ventilatory (respiratory) rate?
    12-20 breaths per minute
  115. Define tidal volume (VT).
    The difference between end-respiratory and end-expiratory volumes during quiet breathing (at rest)
  116. Approximately ho much of the tidal volume actually reaches the respiratory zone?
  117. Define anatomic dead space
    the conducting zone of the airways where gas diffusion does not occur
  118. What is air contained in unperfused alveoli known as?
    Alveolar dead space air
  119. Define physiologic dead space
    The sum of anatomic and alveolar dead space
  120. What is the formula for alveolar ventilation rate?
    Tidal Volume (minus anatomic dead space of 30%) x Respiratory rate
  121. Define Residual Volume (RV).
    The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
  122. How is residual volume measured by spriometry?
    It cannot be measured by spirometry
  123. Define expiratory reserve volume (ERV).
    Extra air that can be maximally exhaled minus the tidal volume
  124. What effect does increased airway resistance (COPD, asthma) have on FEV1?
    It decreases
  125. What is the lung volume measurement that is sometimes regarded as the most sensitive test of small airway narrowing?
    FEF 25-75%
  126. Total lung capacity (TLC) is the sum of what 4 lung volumes?
    • 1. Tidal volume
    • 2. Residual volume
    • 3. Expiratory reserve volume
    • 4. Inspiratory reserve volume
  127. What is the average adult total lung capacity (TLC)?
    6 liters
  128. Define functional residual capacity (FRC)
    The sum of residual volume + Expiratory reserve volume
  129. Define Inspiratory Capacity (IC).
    The sum of tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
  130. What is the formula for minute volume?
    Tidal volume X ventilations/minute
  131. Define Dalton's Law
    Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure independent of the other gases
  132. Define partial pressure as it relates to a gas.
    The pressure of one gas in a mixture of gases
  133. Explain how O2 and CO2 diffuse accros the respiratory membrane and across the walls of systemic capillaries
    Via passive diffusion
  134. What change in the pressure gradient must occur to increase the rate of gas diffusion?
    the pressure gradient must increase
  135. According to Henry's Law, what 2 factors affect the quantity of gas dissolved in liquid?
    • 1. Partial pressure of the gas
    • 2. Solubility of the gas
  136. Which gas is more soluble in plasma, O2 or CO2?
  137. Which gas is less soluble in plasma, N2 or O2?
  138. Name the medical therapy that is physiologic application of Henry's law.
    Hyperbaric Oxygenation
  139. What is the pO2 in venous (deoxygenated) blood in an individual at rest?
    40 mmHg
  140. How does the pO2 value change in an individual who is exercising or who has recently exercised?
    It decreases
  141. What is the pCO2 in venous (deoxygenated) blood in an individual at rest?
    45 mmHg
  142. What is the pCO2 in tissue interstitial fluid in an individual at rest?
    45 mmHg
  143. How does pCO2 in tissue interstitial fluid values change in an individual who is exercising or has recently exercised?
    It incrases
  144. What is the approximate time it takes for blood to flow through alveolar capillaries?
    0.8 seconds
  145. What are 2 characteristics of alveolar capillary beds that insure that blood doesn't flow too fast through alveolar capillaries?
    • 1. There are large numbers of them
    • 2. They distend when blood flow increases
  146. When an individual exercises, blood flow through alveolar capillaries increases. What is the fastest that blood normally flows through alveolar capillaries in this situation (in seconds)?
    0.3 seconds
  147. How does ephysema affect the surface area available for gas diffusion?
    It decreases
  148. What effect does exercise have on the pO2 of an emphysema patient's oxygenated (arterial) blood?
    It decreases
  149. Does an epmhysema patient's tissue cells receive adequate O2?
  150. Does an epmhysema patient have to alter the rate and deapth of his breathing?
    Yes. They will involuntarily breath deeper and faster in an attempt to increase O2 delivery to tissues during exercise
  151. What is the pO2 in tissue cells?
    40 mmHg
  152. What is the pCO2 in tissue cells?
    45 mmHg
  153. Explain why CO2 diffuses into the systemic capillaries and why O2 diffuses into tissue cells
    The partial pressure of O2 is higher in the systemic capillaries so it diffuses into tissue cells where the PO2 is lower. The same is occurring for CO2 in the opposite direction
  154. What is the approximate O2 saturation of venous blood returning to the lungs in an individual at rest?
  155. What are the 4 factors affecting gas diffusion in the lungs (Fick's law)?
    • 1. Respiratory membrane surface area
    • 2. Diffusion distance
    • 3. Differences in partial pressure of O2 and CO2
    • 4. Diffusivity of O2 and CO2
  156. How does an increased partial pressure gradient affect gas diffusion?
    It increases
  157. How does left upper lobe pneumonia affect the total surface area available for gas diffusion in a lung that has increased partial pressure gradient?
    It decreases
  158. What effect does an increased diffusion distance have on gas diffusion in the lungs?
    It decreases
  159. How many iron atoms are contained in a hemoglobin molecule?
  160. Define oxyhemoglobin
    O2 bound to Hemoglobin
  161. Define carboxyhemoglobin
    CO2 bound to Hemoglobin
  162. Define reduced hemoglobin
    Hemoglobin that doesn't have any O2 or CO2 molecules bound to it
  163. How much O2 (in %) is normally transported to the tissues inside of RBCs?
  164. How much O2 (in %) is normally transported to tissues in the plasma?
  165. Each hemoglobin molecule can transport how many O2 molecules?
  166. What is the most important factor that influences how much O2 is bound to hemoglobin?
    The pO2 of the surrounding environment
  167. What is the hemoglobin (in %) if two O2 molecules are bound to 2 iron atoms?
  168. What is SpO2?
    Percent (%) of O2 saturation of hemoglobin in systemic capillaries
  169. What is the approximate O2 saturation of arterial blood if the pO2 in alveolar air is between 60 and 100 mmHg?
  170. When the O2-hemoglobin bond is tight, does the hemoglobin have a high or low affinity for O2?
  171. What are 4 factors that influence how tightly (or loosely) O2 binds to hemoglobin?
    • 1. Acidity (pH)
    • 2. Temperature
    • 3. Bisphosphoglycerate level
    • 4. pCO2
  172. How does a low pH affet hemoglobin affinity for O2?
    It decreases
  173. Describe the Bohr Effect
    The effect of pH on Hemoglobin affinity for O2
  174. How does a high body temperature affect hemoglobin affinity for O2?
    It decreases it
  175. pCO2 has the same effect on hemoglobin affinity for O2 as what other factor?
  176. What is 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate (BPG)?
    A substance formed by RBCs when they utilize glucose for ATP production
  177. How does incresed BPG formation affect hemoglobin affinity for O2?
    It decreases
  178. Is there a direct relationship between pO2 and % of hemoglobin saturation?
    No... (See the O2-HGB Dissociation Curve)
  179. Most CO2 transported to the lungs from the tissues is transported in what way?
    As HCO3- in plasma
  180. What are 2 ways that CO2 is transported in the blood?
    • 1. Dissolved in plasma as CO2
    • 2. As Carbaminohemoglobin
  181. Explain the chloride shift
    As CO2 diffuses into RBCs in tissue capillaries, it is converted to HCO3-. As the HCO3- concentration inside the RBC increases, some of the HCO3- diffuses out of the RBCs into the plasma. Chloride in plasma diffuses into RBCs to maintain electrical neutrality between the ICF and Plasma
  182. Explain the Haldane effect in alveolar capillaries
    More O2 is loaded onto Hemoglobin as (or after) CO2 is unloaded
  183. Explain Haldane effect in tissue capillaries.
    More CO2 is loaded onto hemoglobin as (or after) O2 is unloaded
  184. Tissue O2 demand in a healthy adult during exercise can increase by how much?
    15-20 fold
  185. Identify the specific regin of the respiratory center that controls the basic rhythm of ventilation.
    The inspiratory zone of the medullary rhythmicity area
  186. When is the expirator zone activated?
    Only during forceful breathing
  187. The inspiratory zone transmits nerve impulses to what structures?
    the diaphragm and external intercostals
  188. Which region of the respiratory center transmits inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory zone before the lungs become too full of air?
    Pneumotaxic area
  189. Which region of the respiratory center transmits impulses to the respiratory zone causing deeper and longer inhalations?
    Apneustic area
  190. Explain why we cannot voluntarily stop breathing indefinitely
    The longer we hold our breath, the pCO2 in plasma increases as well. The increasing pCO2 stimulates the respiratory center causing us to inhale (even if we are unconscious)
  191. Where are central chemoreceptors located?
    In the medulla oblongata (the CNS)
  192. Central chemoreceptors monitor the chemical content of what type of body fluid?
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
  193. Peripheral chemoreceptors monitor the chemical content of what body fluid?
    blood (plasma)
  194. Name the 2 types of peripheral chemoreceptors
    • 1. Aortic bodies
    • 2. Carotid bodies
  195. Chemoreceptors send nerve impulses to which region of the respiratory center?
    Inspiratory zone
  196. Define hypercapnia.
    Arterial blood pCO2 that is higher than the normal range
  197. What drives respiration (breathing) in a healthy person?
    Arterial blood pCO2
  198. At what level does the pO2 need to be to allow peripheral chemoreceptors to function normally in the blood?
    50 mmHg
  199. In sever hypoxia, pCO2 increases dramatically while pO2 decreases dramtically. Which one of these partial pressures has the MOST influence on an individual's respiratory drive in this state?
  200. Explain the positive feedback cycle in severe hypoxia that results in cessation of breathing (if it is not rapidly treated).
    Once the pO2 decreases below 50 mmHg, living tissue of the respiratory center does not receive adequate oxygenation. Respiratory center function gradually decreases as the pO2 decreases more. Eventually, the individual stops breathing
  201. What are 2 conditions that cause Cheyne-Stokes breathing?
    • 1. Damage to the respiratory center (from a stroke or trauma)
    • 2. Response to sever respiratory acidosis (as in cardiac arrest)
  202. Define hypocapnia.
    Arterial blood pCO2 that is lower than the normal range
  203. Define hypoxia
    Tissue O2 deficiency
  204. If tissues are hypoxic, where is there NOT enough O2 being transported?
    Arterial blood
  205. Carbon monoxide poisoning results in which type of hypoxia?
  206. Define histotoxic hypoxia
    Tissues cannot utilize O2 that is delivered (there is some intrinsic abnormality within the tissue)
  207. Define Hypoxic hypoxia
    Low arterial blood pO2
  208. Reduced blood flow to a tissue or organ results in what type of hypoxia?
  209. Describe Hering-Breuer reflex
    If too much air enters the lungs, bronchial walls stretch; stretch receptors in the bronchial walls send nerve impulses to the inspiratory zone and apneustic areas inhibiting their function. Exhalation occurs before there is any lung damage due to overfilling
  210. What are the 2 major mechanisms for H+ removal from body fluids?
    • 1. CO2 exhalation
    • 2. H+ excretion in urine
  211. What is the major effect of acidosis on the body?
    CNS depression
  212. A patient complains of chest tightness and "tingling" in her fingers and lips. Is she most likely experiencing acidosis or alkalosis?
    Alkalosis. Alkalosis overexcites the CNS and peripheral nerves
  213. What is meant by "complete compensation" of an acid-base imbalance?
    The compensatory mechanism (or mechanisms) is (are) able to adjust the pH into the normal range
  214. What is meant by "partial compenstation" of an acid-base imbalance?
    The compensatory mechanism (or mechanisms) is (are) able to adjust the more pH toward the normal range, but the pH is stilll above or below the normal range.
  215. What is the compensatory response to respiratory alkalosis?
    Decreased H+ secretion into the renal filtrate and decreased HCO3- absorption from the filtrate
  216. What is a common cause of respiratory alkalosis?
    Emotional hyperventilation
  217. What is the compensatory response to metabolic acidosis?
    Increased rate and depth of breathing
  218. In uncompenstated respiratory acidosis or alkalosis, other than the pH, what arterial blood gas value is abnormal?
  219. In uncompensated metabolic acidosis or alkalosis, other than the pH, what arterial blood gas value is abnormal?
  220. Interpret the following lab results:
    pH: 7.55
    pO2: 93 mmHg
    pCO2: 22 mmHg
    HCO3-: 27 mEq/L
    Uncompensated Respiratory Alkalosis
  221. Interpret the following lab results:
    pH: 7.02
    pO2: 58 mmHg
    pCO2: 78 mmHg
    HCO3-: 22 mEq/L
    Uncompensated Respiratory Acidosis
  222. Interpret the following lab results:
    pH: 6.98
    pO2: 115 mmHg
    pCO2: 43 mmHg
    HCO3-: 12 mEq/L
    Uncompensated metabolic acidosis