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Explain the difference between physical and social sciences.
- physical science is the study of the objective aspects of nature.(biology,chemistry,physics,astronomy,etc.)
- Social science consists of a group of fields that set out to study how humans live and interact. (anthropology,communication, cultural studies, economics, education, geography, history, linguistics, political sciences, psychology, sociology, social work, etc.)
History of social sciences: Hippocrates
Hippocrates: first person to classify people according to personality.
History of social sciences: Plato and aristotle: Plato used geometrical proofs (physical science) to demonstrate his perspective of the intrinsic state of knowledge(social science)
Plato used geometrical proofs (physical science) to demonstrate his perspective of the intrinsic state of knowledge(social science). Aristotle studied planetary motion with the same scientific processes that he studied poetry and rhetoric.
History of social sciences: Sir Isaac Newton
Mathematical principles of Natural Philosophy. Book looked at physical nature as mathematics.
History of social sciences: Darwins theory of natural selection
process in which organisms better adapt to their environment and produce better offspring.
History of social sciences: Sigmund Freud and William James
First scientists to use Darwin`s theory of natural selection
History of social sciences: James A. Winans and Everett Lee Hunt
Led an interdiscliplinary debate over the need for research in public speaking.
Social Science and WW1: William Isaac Thomas and Florian Znaniecki
defined social psychology as"the study of attitudes"
Social Science and WW1: 1920s
Marketing agencies and politicians were using social scientific research
Social scientific research and WW1: Likert, Guttman, and Osgood
developed measures of attitudes still used today
Social scientific research and WW1: US GOVT
looked to social scientists to understand propaganda, attitudes, and persuasion.
Social Scientific research and WW1: Lazarsfeld
publishes the first review of the disclipline of communication. He looked at: 1) who 2) said what 3) to whom 4) with what effect
Social scientific research and WW1: The Yale Group(Hovland, Janis, and Kelly)
looked at variables that influence persuasion.
communication vs. communications
- communication is the process by which one person stimulates meaning in the mind of another person or persons through verbal and nonverbal messages.
- communications: the technology and systems used for sending and receiving messages. For example, postal, telephone, radio, tv, and the internet.
Shannon Weaver model of communication.
SMCR: source, message, channel, receiver.
Qualitative vs Quantitative
Qualitative: dealswith descriptions.Data can be observed but not measured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. Qualitative=Quality
Quantitative: Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured. Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. (Quantitative=Quantity)
Scientific Method: 1) Theory
A proposed explanation of how somethign will occur. Capable of making predictions about the future. Falsifiable through empirical research. Explain, predict, falsifiable.
Scientific method: 2) Hypothesis/predictions
- We form predictions about the relationship between phenomena/variables that come in the form of hypothesis.
- Propositions:conditional(dependant on something to occur) or hypothetocal (untrue now and in future)
- Antecedant: if statement
- consequent: then stratement
Deductive method vs inductive method
- deductive method starts with a few true statements with the goal of proving many true statements that logically follow from them.
- inductive method starts with many observations of nature, with the goal of finding a few, powerful statements about how nature works.
Scientific method: 3) observations
- The testing of the hypothesis. An experiment is the most rigorous way to test a theory because it allows for control over variables.
- Error results from our lack of ability to control for extraneous variables. Observations need to be objective.
scientific method: 4) empirical generalizations
- attempt tp describe a phenomenon based on what we know at the time.
- based on previous observations.
- Hasty generalizations: generalizing when we dont have enough evidence.
- typically associated with religion and philosophy.
- ethis are important in all steps in social scientific research process.
- ethics are what is right and wrong? or what should a person do?
Tuskegee Syphilis Studies
The US public health services was involved in violating the basic human rights of the research participants, the US public was outraged, especially since penicillin, a good treatment option for syphillis, had been around and available since WW2.
two researchers conducted a staged burglary to watch bystanders reactions. Police showed up with guns once one bystander called police.this experiment could have ended badly for both the researchers and the bystanders alike.
Humphrey`s T-Room Trade
examined what types of men engage in anonymouos sex in public restrooms with other men.
Wichita Jury Study
researchers tape recorder 6 jury deliberations in wichita. project seen as undermining judicial system because surveilance could have an impact on case.
The prison stimulation study in a basement at stanford university. Guards psychology and physically abused prisoners. Researchers did not do enough upfront to guarantee the safety of all participants--guards and prisoners.
study involving shocks up too 300 V in which people in one room thought they were embarking pain on others in another room.
the adolescent alcohol consumption project. Children were open about alcohol consumption and when parents saw the research in the paper with their childrens names, they were outraged.
Undergraduate at a University
involved student participants who volunteered to be interviewed or who lived in the dorm or attended classes with the researcher. The researchers real name was discovered which caused some stir in the academic community.
4 ethical stances
- 1) ethical behavior(good means, good ends)
- 2) unethical behavior( bad means, bad ends)
- 3) machiavellian ethic (bad means, good end
- 4)subjective ethic(good means, bad end)
Belmont report: 3 basic principles
- 1) researchers should respect all possible research participants as autonomous individuals who have the capability of making decisions about their participation in a research project.(informed consent)
- 2) guarantee beneficence. Obligates researchers to make sure that suring the research process they maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms to the research participants themselves.
- 3) Justice. The authors of the report believed that those who take the risks of research should also receive the benefits of that research.
Institutional Review Boards- IRBs
IRBs are charged with the task of ensuring that researchers take appropriate steps in protecting and informing research participants. Participants are given consent, paid, and are allowed to remain anonomous, private, and confidential.
Anonomous vs. confidential
- anonomous- when a researcher does not know who participated in the study
- confidential- when a researcher has a sisclosed relationship of trust with the participants and will not diculge in releasing any information without consent.
under HIPPA, privacy has a new stage of understanding. There are classifications for what is deemed protected health information.
ethical issues for research
data accuracy, data sharing, duplicate data publication, post hoc hypothesis revision, participant identity disclosures, authorship credit, plagiarism.
5 steps to beginning a research project
- 1) identify a topic
- 2)clarifying the research question and generate key terms
- 3) locate sources of information
- 4) organizing and evaluating information
- 5) cite sources of information using APA format
Where do you find information for research project?
books, magazines, scholarly journals, magazines, newspapers, encyclopedias, handbooks, and the world wide web.... electronic databases (lexusnexus, papers first, comabstracts)
What are some data bases?
Academic search premier, lexus nexus, com abstracts, findarticles.com
Who is Witts library laezon?
Difference between paraphrasing and quoting directly.
quoting directly involves using an authors direct words and paraphrasing refers to including another persons ideas into your own words. You should cite your authors name and date in each.
Evaluating web sources
accuracy, authority, currency, and objectivity.
Sections of a research paper
abstract, introduction, Literature Review, Study rationale, method section, results section, discussion section, the conclusion
One tailed hypothesis
a hypothesis that predicts the specific nature of the relationship or difference.
a hypothesis that predicts that there is a signifigant difference or relationship, but does not indicate the specific nature of the difference or relationship.
there are zero differences or zero relationships
directional research questions vs. non directional research questions
- directional research questions occur when a researcher asks if there is either a specific signifigant difference between two or more variables or a positive or negative relationship between two or more variables.
- non directional research question is when a researcher asks if there is a difference or relationship between two or more variables.
variable is something that can take on multiple values... ex: sex, gender, ethnicity, height age
Concrete vs abstract variables
- concrete are stable and consistent, not likely to change(sex)
- abstract variables: changed/differ accross time and situations. ex: age, height, clothes
unit of analysis
- the phenomen being studied( the who or what is being studied)
- in comm units of analysis are typically individuals, dyads, groups, organizations, texts/media
- specific categories of a variable.
- sex, sexual orientation, hair color, personality type
- the numerical designation assigned to each variable for the purpose of statistical analysis.
- Sometimes researchers assign a number to represetn attributes.
Hypothesis of association vs. hypothesis of difference.
- Hypothesis of association- goal is to identify how variables are related to one another. Ex: as age increases, height increases A change in independant variable leads to a change in the dependant variable. Relationships can be positive, negative, or neutral.
- Hypothesis of difference: differences in kind. Differences in degree. The extent to which two groups differ on a variable.
- predictor variable.
- the variable that is manipulated or changed.
- the variable that influences the dependant variable.
outcome variable, the variable that we measure.
additional variables that may impact the relationship between the IV and the DV
variables that exist prior to the measurement of IV and DV that may influence the relationship. Ante=before
Variable level: nominal variable
identified by qualitative characteristics. identified often by name or category.
Variable level: Ordinal
- have both quantitive and qualitative characteristics.
- Rank order
- mutually exclusive
- logical ordering of categories
- ex: military hierarchy
Variable level: interval
- classified in logical order
- represents equal distances between levels within each category.
Variable level: ratio
- similar to interval variables but...
- have an absolute zero point- zero represents the absence of the property.
- ex: income-the lowest will be zero.
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