AP Psychology Test 1 Vocab

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AP Psychology Test 1 Vocab
2011-09-19 21:27:00

psych vocab
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  1. Behaviorism
    The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)
  2. Humanistic Psychology
    Historically significant perspective that emphazied the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
  3. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  4. Nature-Nurture Issue
    The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
  5. Levels of Analysis
    The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenom
  6. Basic Research
    Pure science theat aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
  7. Applied Research
    Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
  8. Counseling Psychology
    A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
  9. Clinical Psychology
    A branch of psychology that studies, asseses, and treats people with psychological disorders
  10. Psychiatry
    A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
  11. Social Psychology
    The scientific study of how we think, about, influence, and relate to one another
  12. Attribution Theory
    Suggests how we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition
  13. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
  14. Attitude
    Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
  15. Foot-in-the-door Phenomenom
    The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  16. Role
    A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  17. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
  18. Conformity
    Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
  19. Normative Social Influence
    Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
  20. Informational Social Influence
    Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinion about reality
  21. Social Facilitation
    Stranger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
  22. Social Loafing
    The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  23. Deindividuation
    The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that faster arousal and anonymity
  24. Group Polarization
    The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
  25. Groupthink
    The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
  26. Prejudice
    An unjstifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discrimatoy actions
  27. Stereotype
    A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
  28. Discrimination
    Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
  29. Ingroup
    "us"- people with whom one shares a common identity
  30. Outgroup
    "Them"- those perceived as different or apart fromm one's ingroup
  31. Ingroup Bias
    The tendency to favor one's own group
  32. Scapegoat Theory
    The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
  33. Just-World Phenomenom
    The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they got
  34. Aggression
    Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
  35. Frustration-Aggression Principle
    The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creats anger, which can generate aggression
  36. Mere Exposure Effect
    The phenomenom that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
  37. Passionate Love
    An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
  38. Companionate Love
    The deep affectionate attachement we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
  39. Equity
    A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
  40. Self-Disclosure
    Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  41. Altruism
    Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
  42. Bystander Effect
    The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
  43. Conflict
    A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
  44. Superordinate Goals
    Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation