Bio 100

Card Set Information

Bio 100
2011-09-19 21:33:29

SDSU Bio 100 Fall 2011 - proteins; properties of life; photosynthesis; ATP, digestive system, liver, molecules of life; loss of oxidative phosphorylation; water; cells; carbohydrates
Show Answers:

  1. Urea is synthesized in the liver and transported through the blood to be what?
    to be excreted in the urine
  2. Our species, Homo Sapiens, is considered unique in that it what?
    over-rides feedback loops of self survival
  3. What are the four types of macromolecules?
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Carbohydrates
  4. What are the 8 amion acids that must be obtained from the diet called?
    essential amion acids
  5. The exact sequence of amino acids dictates the _______ of each protein.
    • mass
    • biological function
    • primary structure
    • polarity
  6. what helos set up the counter current system in the nephrons?
  7. What is anoxia refer to?
    low levels of oxygen
  8. Death is a process characterized by what?
    The loss of the ability to make and utilize energy
  9. How many phosphate groups are attached to ATP?
  10. Why Carbon Monoxide is harmful to our health?
    It has a higher afinity for hemoglobin than oxygen gas does and doesn't allow oxygen gas to be delivered to the mitochondria
  11. Acidosis occurs when the blood pH falls below what?
  12. What is the principle means of passive transport?
  13. Cocaine is a byproduct of which system?
    Light Independent Phase (LIP)
  14. Which of the two major categories of the chemical reaction in photosynthesis is oxygen the product?
    Light Dependent Phase (LDP)
  15. What are the membrane-spanning proteins that link cells together called?
  16. Which organelle is responsible for ATP production in the cell?
  17. What molecules feed into the Calvin Cycle?
    • ATP
    • NADPH
  18. True or False:
    Fructose and glucose are broken down products of sucrose
  19. Which part of the chloropast is responsible for the LDP?
  20. The neutotransmitter found in insects that is similar to dopamine is what?
  21. What is the sugar found in ATP called?
  22. What is the nucleotide in ATP called?
  23. The light dependent phase (LDP) does what?
    produces oxygen
  24. When having a heart attack, your heart muscle doesn't contract. Why is this?
    ATP is not replenishing itself
  25. Where would you predict the hydrophobic amino acid to be on the tertiary structure of a protein that is normally found in food?
    buried within the globular domain away from water
  26. What must be done to change the primary strucutre of a protein?
    alter the sequence of amino acids
  27. What are proteins broken down into before they can be absorbed into the body by digestion?
    amino acids
  28. What process must ATP undergo to promote the chemical union of actin and myosin?
    loss of a high energy phosphate by way of hydrolysis
  29. What is the process that cleaves a phosphate molecule from ATP called?
  30. Blood pH is 7.4, if oxygen isn't presnt, what happens to the blood pH?
  31. How does ATP interact with protein?
    it changes the shape of the protein to allow a chemical reaction to occur
  32. Where is the primary neural location that cocaine has its effect?
    nucleus accumbens
  33. Why do scientists believe there is a lower limit to the size of a cell?
    the organelles and other essential components of life occupy fixed volume inside a cell
  34. What does trypsin do?
    hydrolyzes peptides into amino acids
  35. A hypertonic solution inside a cell will cauase what to happen?
    the cell will draw water menaing that water will enter the cell
  36. What is it called when oxygen gas and hemoglobin are transferred in the blood?
  37. One of the most important properties of proteins is their ability to undergo "conformational change." What does this mean?
    proteins are structurally flexible and can undergo slight changes in shape
  38. What causes brain cells to become excitable?
  39. What is an amyloid beta?
    a protein that is the main consituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients
  40. What is the main reaction that takes place inside an artifical leaf?
    the breaking down of water into hydrogen gas and oxygen
  41. Where is the biochemical energy that is stored in the ATP molecule found?
    the gamma phosphate to cause conformational change in the chemical reactions
  42. What is the fundamental unit of life?
  43. Bile salts produced in the liver assist in the breakdown of lipids by acting as an emulsifying agent. What is an emulsifying agent?
    an agent that will chemically interact with bother lipids and water, thus stabilizing the interface between lipid (oil) or water droplets in suspension
  44. Cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungss and tissure are called what?
    red blood cells
  45. What is the scientifically accepted lower limit for the size of a cell?
  46. Where is ATP located?
    anywhere in the cell where a chemical reation occurs
  47. ATP is related chemically to what biological molecules?
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • NAD
    • NADP
  48. For ATP to be generated, what does the cell need?
    oxygen and food
  49. How would the metabolism of freshly eaten proteins be affected if your stomach didnt' contain pepsin or hydrochloric acid?
    the proteins would not be broken down into peptides before entering the small intestine
  50. Dr. Pozos is a mad protein scientist. In his spare time he gets alanine, serine, and trypotphan (amino acids) to form peptide bonds with one another. What should be call these molecules that he as made?
  51. Energy capture results in the production of which major molecule?
  52. All organisms live for certain fixed periods of time. This time is determined by what?
  53. What was the objective of creating an artificial leaf?
    to generate hydrogen gas that can be used to generate clean energy
  54. What enzyme is common to both plant and animal cells in production of ATP?
    ATP synthase
  55. What ist the study of energy?
  56. Carbon atoms can form up to how many covalent bonds by sharing electrons with other atoms?
  57. Carbon atoms form what kind of bond with hydrogen/other carbon atoms to become stable under the octet rule and are termed organic compounds?
    covalent bonds
  58. What nucleotides are found in RNA?
    • Guanine
    • Aclenine
    • Uracil
    • Cytosine
  59. Which nucleotides are found in DNA?
    • Thymine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Adenine
  60. true or false:
    The hydrogen gas generated by the articicial leaf can be immediately used or stored for electricity generation.
  61. true or false:
    The liver produces iron and some vitamins.
  62. false
  63. true or false:
    Carbohydrates are made from monomers and polymers of hydrophoibic hydrocarbons.
  64. true or false:
    Once a food molecule is absorbed from the small intestine it travels to the pancreas for further process and storage/further transport.
    false; liver
  65. true or false:
    Carbohydrates are made from monomers and polymers of sugars.
  66. Where does food first start to chemically digest?
  67. Is water a macromolecule in biology?
  68. true or false:
    RNA consists of connected subunits that contain a base, a sugar, and a calcium.
  69. Why do athletes eat pasta before a game?
    to provide their bodies withi a source of high-energy glucose
  70. If someone is "over-hydrated" and the concentration of salt in the blood is low. What treatment do you think a doctor would recommend?
    give the person high salt fluids intravenously
  71. What is ATP?
    the energy currency of the cell
  72. Without ATP in a critical mass of cells, what would occur?
    cessation of cellular, tissue, organ function
  73. WHat is reproduction controlled by?
    external and internal processes
  74. What is the space inside the cell called?
  75. The nicotine in a cigarette activates which structure?
    nicotine receptors on the plasma membrane
  76. Do heart cells contain nicotine receptors?
  77. What do white blood cells do?
    defend the body against foreign invaders
  78. What is a set of flattened sacs that function in the packaging and processing of newly synthesized proteins fro the endoplasmic reticulum called?
    golgi complex
  79. In metabolism, if oxygen accepts an electron it is considered to be what?
  80. true or false:
    ATP synthase needs an electron to produce ATP.
  81. Priscilla was in the labatory one night when she accidentaly ingested a mutagenic chemical. This chemical acted directly on her islets of Langerhans and caused them to turn into endothelial cells. What consequences would this have on her body?
    her body would quit producing insulin and glucagon and she would have trouble controlling her glucose metabolism
  82. Similar to the process in animal cells, plasmolysis is a process in plant cells where the cytoplasm of the cell shrinks while it is in a hypertonic environment. What is the name of the similar process in animal cells?
  83. There was a body builder that needed to increase his muscle mass. The process that helped his muscles grow is a metabolic process that synthesizes large molecules from smaller molecules. This process also produces cell differentiation which helps build tissue and organs.
  84. The cell membrane regulates the internal environment of the cell by which method.
    having receptors on its survace that when activated, will allow various substances to enter and having specific chemicals that allows certain substances to enter and leave
  85. A redwood tree lives for a thousand years, a cactus may live to be 500 years old and humans live to be 118. What factors determine the longevity of these structures?
    chromosomal inheritance and environment
  86. Ocer a very long period of time, humans have evolved to stand up-right and have genes that control brain development, which evolves more rapid than any other mamal on earth. Which biological molecule needs to be produced in order for this evolutionary change to happen?
    Proteins in the form of enzymes
  87. A person is crossing the desert and runs out of water. He has to go 10 miles before he gets some more water. He has his 4 year old son with him. What hormone will be released in both of them to protect the body water levels?
    antidiuretic hormone
  88. A football player is sweating profusely during a game on a hot, dry day. What part of the cell controls the movement of water into his cells?
    cell membrane
  89. true or false:
    Cellulolose is a carbohydrate that provides structural support for living beings.
  90. Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats can all be broken down into what?
  91. The complete oxidation of glucose, includingt the TCA cycle, in the cells releases energy in the form of what?
  92. _______ defines a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically 3-10) of component sugars, aka simiple sugars.