Medterms Ch5

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  1. Organization of the body
    Chemicals-->Cells-->Tissues-->Organs-->Body systems-->Organism
  2. Fundamental unit of life
    the cell
  3. Four main types of tissues & their fns
    • 1. epithelial (covering)
    • 2. connective (supporting and protecting)
    • 3. muscular (contracting)
    • 4. nervous (conducting impulses) tissues
  4. context: organization scheme of body
  5. context: organization scheme of body
  6. context: organization scheme of body
  7. context: organization scheme of body
  8. context: organization scheme of body
    below normal
  9. context: organization scheme of body
    above normal
  10. dysplasia
    abnormal development of tissues; recognized by cells that differ in size, shape, and appearance.
  11. aplasia
    lack of development of an organ or tissue
  12. -hypoplasia
    • -hypo= less severe than aplasia
    • -hyper= abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in tissue
  13. hypertrophy
    increase in size of organ caused by an increase in the size of the cells
  14. anaplasia
    change in structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversal to a more primitive form, is characteristic of malignancy.
  15. context: major body systems
    muscular system
    makes movements possible
  16. context: major body systems
    skeletal system
    provides protection, form, and shape for body; stores minerals and forms some blood cells
  17. context: major body systems
    cardiovascular system
    delivers oxygen, nutrients, and vital substances throughout the body; transports cellular waste products to the lungs and kidneys for excretion
  18. context: major body systems
    lymphatic system
    helps maintain the internal fluid environment; produces some types of blood cells; regulates immunity
  19. context: major body systems
    respiratory system
    brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide and some water waste
  20. context: major body systems
    digestive system
    provides the body with water, nutrients, and minerals; removes solid wastes
  21. context: major body systems
    urinary system
    filters blood to remove wastes of cellular metabolism; maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance
  22. context: major body systems
    reproductive system
    facilitates procreation (producing offspring)
  23. context: major body systems
    integumentary system
    provides external covering for protection; regulates the body temperature and water content
  24. context: major body systems
    nervous system
    coordinates the reception of stimuli; transmits messages to stimulate movement
  25. context: major body systems
    endocrine system
    secretes hormones and helps regulate body activities
  26. homeostasis
    constant internal environment that is naturally maintained by the body
  27. 3 reference planes
    • frontal plane (coronal plane) - divides front/back
    • transverse plane- divides upper/lower parts
    • sagittal plane- divides left/right
    • midsagittal plane- divides into 2 equal halves
  28. context: anatomic position
    nearer to or toward front; ventral
  29. context: anatomic position
    nearer or toward the back; dorsal; situated behind
  30. context: anatomic position
    toward the side; denoating a position farther from the midline of body or from a structure
  31. context: anatomic position
    medi/o, mid
    medial, median
    middle or nearer the middle
  32. context: anatomic position
  33. context: anatomic position
    belly side; same as anterior surface in humans
  34. context: anatomic position
    directed toward or situated on the back side; same as posterior surface in humans
  35. context: anatomic position
    uppermost or above
  36. context: anatomic position
    lowermost or below
  37. context: anatomic position
    nearer the origin or point of attachment
  38. context: anatomic position
    far or distant from the origin or point of attachment
  39. context: anatomic position
    toward the head
  40. context: anatomic position
    toward the tail or in an inferior direction in humans
  41. posterointernal
    situated toward the back and the inner side
  42. anteromedian
    located in front and toward the middle
  43. posteroexternal
    situated toward the back and outer side
  44. posteromedian
    situated in the middle of the back
  45. dorsolateral
    pertaining to the back and the side
  46. posterolateral
    pertaining to a position behind and to the side
  47. anterolateral
    pertaining to the front and one side
  48. mediolateral
    pertaining to the middle and one side
  49. anterosuperior
    indicates a position in front and above
  50. posterosuperior
    indicates a position behind and above
  51. inferomedian
    situated in the middle of the underside
  52. anteroposterior
    front to back
  53. posteroanterior
    back to front
  54. dorosventral
    pertains to the back and belly
  55. distal
    opposite of proximal; far or distant; away from origin or point of attachment
  56. tel/e
    • distant
    • telecardiogram - machine distant from patient tracing electrical impulses of heart
  57. prone and supine
    position of person lying face (head) down and lying on the back
  58. pronation of arm
    palm of hand turned down
  59. supination of arm
    palm of hand turned up
  60. two principal cavities of the body
    • dorsal (located near posterior part of body)
    • ventral (located near anterior part of body)
  61. dorsal cavity is divded into the ____ & ____ cavities
    • cranial
    • spinal
  62. viscera
    large organs contained in the ventral cavity
  63. ventral cavity is subdivided into ____ & ____ cavities
    • thoracic
    • abdominopelvic
  64. diaphragm
    dome-shaped partition that fns in respiration; divides thoracic and abdominopelvic
  65. peritoneum
    serous membrane; lines abdominopelvic cavity and enfolds internal organs; secretes lubricating fluid allowing organs to glide against one another or against cavity wall
  66. adhesion
    sticking together of two structures that are normal separated
  67. abdomin/o
  68. acr/o
    extremities (arms and legs)
  69. blephar/o
  70. cyst/o
    cyst, bladder, or sac
  71. dactyl/o
    digit (toes, fingers, or both)
  72. lapar/o
    abdominal wall
  73. omphal/o
    umbilicus (navel)
  74. onych/o
  75. pelv/i
  76. periton/o
  77. som/a, somat/o
  78. thorac/o
    chest (thorax)
  79. -centesis
    surgical puncture
  80. -itis
  81. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  82. quad
  83. para-
  84. femar/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  85. inguin/o
  86. spermat/o
  87. -metry
  88. therm/o
  89. -y
  90. -megaly
  91. omphalitis
    inflammed condition of the navel
  92. omphalorrhexis
    rupture of the navel
  93. omphalorrhagia
    umbilical hemmorrhage
  94. omphalocele
    congential herniation of the navel
  95. cephalometry
    measurement of dimensions of the head
  96. cephalgia; cephalodynia
    pain in the head or headache
  97. blepharoplegia
    paralysis of one or both eyelids
  98. dactylography
    study of fingerprints
  99. dactylospasm
    cramping of a finger or toe
  100. chiropody
    pertaining to the hands and feet
  101. onychophagist
    one that bites nails
  102. onychopathy
    disease of the nails
  103. onychomycosis
    disease of the nails caused by fungus
  104. onychectomy
    declawing of an animal
  105. fact: fluids constitute more than __% of an adult's weight under normal conditions
  106. fluid balance is maintained through ___ and ___ of ___
    fluid balance is maintained through intake and output of water
  107. context: body fluids
    crin/o, -crine
  108. context: body fluids
    dacry/o, lacrim/o
    tear, tearing, crying
  109. context: body fluids
    condition of the blood
  110. context: body fluids
    hem/o, hemat/o
  111. context: body fluids
    sweat or perspiration
  112. context: body fluids
  113. context: body fluids
    hymph (sometimes refers to lympatics)
  114. context: body fluids
  115. context: body fluids
  116. context: body fluids
    substance that causes production
  117. context: body fluids
  118. context: body fluids
    saliva (sometimes refers to salivary glands)
  119. context: body fluids
    urine (sometimes urinary tract)
  120. lacrimal gland
    • tear gland
    • produces fluid that keeps eyes moist
    • crying; "tearing"
  121. lacrimation
    crying; discharge of tears
  122. ophthalmitis
    inflammation of the eye
  123. calculi
    stones or concretions
  124. dacryolith
    • lacrimal stone or calculus
    • aka "tear stones"
  125. dacryocyst
    • tear sac
    • collects lacrimal fluid
  126. sial/o
    • pertaining to salivary gland or saliva
    • ex. sialolith: salivary calculus
  127. sialography
    x-ray of the ducts of the salivary glands
  128. "endo-" and "exo-"
    inside and outside
  129. exocrine
    • secrete
    • ex. exocrine glands have ducts that carry secretions to epithelial surface
  130. endocrine glands
    • ductless
    • secrete their hormones into bloodstream
    • ex: sex glands, thyroid and adrenal glands
  131. sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands
  132. hidrosis
    • formation and excretion of sweat
    • --> diaphoresis = excessive sweating
  133. hidradenoma
    tumor of sweat gland
  134. anuria
    • without urine
    • production of less than 100mL of urine in 24 hours constitutes anuria
  135. polyuria
    excessive urination
  136. hematuria
    blood in the urine
  137. lymph
    transparent fluid found in lymphatic vessels
  138. mucous
    • pertaining to mucus
    • secreting, producing, containing or covered with mucus
  139. mucosa
    mucous membrane
  140. py/o
  141. pyuria
    pus in the urine
  142. abscess
    localized collection of pus in a cavity surrounded by healthy tissue
  143. cerebrospinal
    brain and spine
  144. hydrocephalus
    condition; abnormal accumulation of CSF
  145. neurologic
    pertaining to the nervous system
  146. -genic
    produced by
  147. coagul/o
  148. cyt/o
  149. erythr/o
  150. hem/a, hemat/o
  151. leuk/o
  152. thromb/o
    clot (thrombus)
  153. -cyte
  154. -osis
    increased; abormal (when describing cell)
  155. -penia
  156. -poiesis
  157. composition of blood
    top to bottom: plasma 55% and formed elements 45%
    • plasma: water, solutes
    • middle: leukocytes and thrombcytes (platelets)
    • bottom: erythrocytes
  158. hematoma
    localized collection of blood (usually clotted) in an organ, tissue or space due to break in wall of blood vessel
  159. hemolysis
    destruction of RBCs
  160. -lysis
  161. anticoagulant
    substance that delays or prevents blood from clotting
  162. thombosis
    formation of internal blood clots
  163. RBC count
    red cell count
  164. WBC count
    white cell count
  165. CBC
    complete blood count- RBC, WBC and indifferential WBC count exams
  166. platelets
    small structures in the blood important for blood clotting.
  167. thrombocytes
    blood platelets
  168. thrombocytopenia
    reduction in number of blood platelets
  169. erythrocytes
    contain hemoglobin
  170. anemia
    condition in which the number of RBCs or concentration of hemoglobin (or both) is decreased
  171. pallor
  172. leukocytes
    major fn: body defense
  173. phagocytes
    ingest and destroy particulate substances (bacteria, protozoa, cells and cell debris)
  174. leukopenia
    abnormal decrease in total number of WBCs
  175. leukocytosis
    abnormal increase in total number of WBCs
  176. leukemia
    • progressive, malignant disease of blood-forming organs
    • characterized by increase number of leukocytes and presence of immature forms of leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
  177. hematopoiesis
    • formation and development of blood cells
    • takes place in bone marrow
  178. erythopoietin
    • hormone produced in kidneys and released into blood stream
    • causes production of RBCs
  179. erythrocyte
    (transports oxygen)
    • RBC
    • ex: erythrocytosis - condition
    • ex: erythrocytopenia - deficiency
  180. leukocyte
    (body defense)
    • WBC
    • ex: leukocytosis - condition
    • ex: leukopenia - deficiency
  181. thrombocyte
    (blood clotting)
    • platelet (blood platelet)
    • ex: thrombocytosis - condition
    • ex: thrombopenia - deficiency
  182. susceptibility
    being vulnerable to a disease or disorder
  183. resistance
    the body's natural ability to counteract microorganisms or toxins
  184. the body's first line of defense is ____
    nonspecific resistance (directed against all pathogens)
  185. initial defense mechanism
    • inflammation
    • a protective response of body tissue that increases circulation to an area after irritation or injury.
  186. phagocytosis
    ingestion and destruction of microorganisms
  187. interferon
    cell-produced protein that protects the cells from viral infection
  188. complement
    protein that promotes inflammation, phagocytosis and causes bacterial cells to rupture
  189. 2nd type of defense
    selective or specific resistance (directed against particular pathogens)
  190. immunity
    body's ability to counteract the effects of infectious organisms
  191. antigen
    any substance that the body regards as foreign
  192. antibody
    disease-fighting protein produced by immune system in response to presence of specific antigen
  193. immunization
    process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented
  194. lymphocytes of specific immunity
    B cells and T cells
  195. Specific immunity
    • active
    • passive
  196. specific immunity
    recognition of specific antigens in both active and passive immunity
  197. vaccination
    administration of antigenic material to induce immunity
  198. immunocompromised
    immune response weakened by disease or immunosuppressive agent
  199. examples of immunosuppressants
    • radiation
    • certain drugs
  200. immunodeficiency diseases
    • caused by defect in immune system
    • characterized by susceptibility to infections and chronic diseases
  201. hypersensitivity
    excessive reaction to an antigen
  202. allergies
    conditions in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to common, harmless substances, most of which are found in environment.
  203. anaphylaxis
    life-threatening hypersensitivity rxns to previously encountered antigen
  204. -phylaxis
  205. three major types of baceria
    • cocci
    • bacilli
    • spirilla
  206. types of pathogenic microorganisms
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • protozoa
    • viruses
  207. benign
    • favorable for recovery
    • not having a tendency to spread
  208. malignant
    tending to grow worst, to spread and possible become life threatening
  209. metastasis
    spreading from one part of the body to another part
  210. metastasize
    spread to sites away from where they originate
  211. bioterrorism
    the use of pathogenic biological agents to cause terror in a population
  212. WMD
    weapons of mass destruction
  213. FEMA
    Federal Emergency Management Agency
  214. CDC
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  215. categories to define WMD
    • biological
    • nuclear
    • incendiary (flammable substances to ignite fires)
    • chemical
    • explosive
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Medterms Ch5
Medterms Ch5
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