Psychology 1101 TEST #1

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Psychology 1101 TEST #1
2011-09-20 01:19:56

Unit 1 test
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  1. Psychology
    Defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  2. Steps of the scientific method
    Observe/Theorize; Formulate a hypothesis; design a study; collect data; apply results to hypothesis.
  3. Goals of psychology
    • 1. Description (identifying and classifying)
    • 2. Explanation (Proposing reasons)
    • 3. Prediction (offering predictions about how condition will affect outcome)
    • 4. Influence (using results of research to solve problems)
  4. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
    Known as the "father of psychology," also known for introspection
  5. Functionalism
    An early school of thought that concerns the way that humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environment
  6. Behaviorism
    The school of psychology that veiws observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior
  7. Psychoanalysis
    The term Freud used for both his theory of personality adn his therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders; the unconscious is the primary focus of this theory.
  8. Humanistic Psychology
    The school of psychology that focuses on the uniquness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health.
  9. Cognitive Psychology
    The school of psychology that sees human active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, and language.
  10. Gestalt psychology
    The school of psychology that emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceivedd while is more than the sum of its parts.
  11. Evolutionary psychology
    The school of psychology that studies how human behaviors required fr survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution.
  12. Biological Psychology
    The school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological precesses that often help explain individual differences.
  13. Sociocultural approach
    The view that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and psychological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others.
  14. Critical thinking
    The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence precented.
  15. Laboratory obervations
    A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting.
  16. Case Study
    A descriptive research method in which a single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth.
  17. Correlation method
    A research method used to establish the degree of relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors.
  18. Correlation coefficient
    A numerical value that indicates strength and direction of the relation between two variables
  19. Experimental method
    The only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables.
  20. Independent variable
    In an experiment, a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes any changes any change in another behavior or condition.
  21. Dependent variable
    The factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable(s)
  22. Experimental group
    In an experiment, the group that is exposed to an independent variable.
  23. Control group
    In an experiment, a group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for purposes of comparison.
  24. Neuron
    A specialized cell that conducts impulses through nervous system.
  25. Neurotransmitters
    Specialized chemicals that facilitate or inhibit the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the next.
  26. Cell body
    The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic functions of the neuron.
  27. Three parts of the brain
    Forebrain; midbrain; hindbrain
  28. Hypothalmus
    A small, but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors.
  29. Cerebrum
    The largest structure of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex
  30. Cerebral cortex
    Responsible for higher functions such as language, memory, and thinking.
  31. Thalmus
    Acts as a relay station for information flowing into and out of the forebrain.
  32. Cerebellum
    Helps body execute smooth, skilled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture.
  33. Medulla
    Controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing.
  34. Amygdala
    Plays important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
  35. The frontal lobe
    The largest of the brain's lobes, which contain the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association areas.
  36. Parietal lobes
    The lobes that contain the somatosensory cortex and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation.
  37. Occipital lobes
    The lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information; they contain the primary visual cortex.
  38. Temporal lobes
    The lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory information; they contain the primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, and the temporal association areas.
  39. Endocrine system
    A system of ductless glands in various parts of the body that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cells in other parts of the body
  40. Pituitary gland
    • Hormones: Growth hormone, many others
    • Functions: Controls growth rate; activates other endocrine glands
  41. Parathyroid gland
    • Hormone: parathormone
    • Functions: Regulates calcium
  42. Thyroid gland
    • Hormone: Thymosin, others
    • Function: Regulates immune system
  43. Thymus gland
    • Hormone: thymosin, others
    • Functions: Regulates immune system
  44. Adrenal gland
    • Hormones: Ephinephrin, norepinephrine, corticoids, sex hormones
    • Functions: Activates the sympathetic nervous system; controls salt balance, plays role in puberty and sexual function
  45. Pancreas
    • Hormones: insulin, glucagon
    • Functions: regulates blood sugar
  46. Ovaries/Testes
    • Hormones: sex hormones
    • Functions: Regulate reproduction and sexual functions; responsible for the secondary sex characteristics
  47. Genes
    The segments of DNA that are located on the chromosomes and are the basic units for the transmission of all hereditary traits.
  48. Chromosomes
    Rod-shaped structures in the nuclei of body cells, which contain all the genes and carry all the genetic information necessary to make a human being.
  49. Genotype
    An individual's genetic makeup
  50. Polygenic inheritance
    A pattern of inheritance in which any genes influence a trait
  51. Multifactorial inheritance
    A patter of inheritance in which a trait is influenced by both genes and environmental factors
  52. Behavioral genetics
    A field of research that uses twin studies and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior