Defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Steps of the scientific method
Observe/Theorize; Formulate a hypothesis; design a study; collect data; apply results to hypothesis.
Goals of psychology
1. Description (identifying and classifying)
2. Explanation (Proposing reasons)
3. Prediction (offering predictions about how condition will affect outcome)
4. Influence (using results of research to solve problems)
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Known as the "father of psychology," also known for introspection
An early school of thought that concerns the way that humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environment
The school of psychology that veiws observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior
The term Freud used for both his theory of personality adn his therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders; the unconscious is the primary focus of this theory.
The school of psychology that focuses on the uniquness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health.
The school of psychology that sees human active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, and language.
The school of psychology that emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceivedd while is more than the sum of its parts.
The school of psychology that studies how human behaviors required fr survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution.
The school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological precesses that often help explain individual differences.
The view that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and psychological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others.
The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence precented.
A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting.
A descriptive research method in which a single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth.
A research method used to establish the degree of relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors.
A numerical value that indicates strength and direction of the relation between two variables
The only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables.
In an experiment, a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes any changes any change in another behavior or condition.
The factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable(s)
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to an independent variable.
In an experiment, a group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for purposes of comparison.
A specialized cell that conducts impulses through nervous system.
Specialized chemicals that facilitate or inhibit the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the next.
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic functions of the neuron.
Three parts of the brain
Forebrain; midbrain; hindbrain
A small, but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors.
The largest structure of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex
Responsible for higher functions such as language, memory, and thinking.
Acts as a relay station for information flowing into and out of the forebrain.
Helps body execute smooth, skilled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture.
Controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing.
Plays important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
The frontal lobe
The largest of the brain's lobes, which contain the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association areas.
The lobes that contain the somatosensory cortex and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation.
The lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information; they contain the primary visual cortex.
The lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory information; they contain the primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, and the temporal association areas.
A system of ductless glands in various parts of the body that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cells in other parts of the body
Hormones: Growth hormone, many others
Functions: Controls growth rate; activates other endocrine glands
Functions: Regulates calcium
Hormone: Thymosin, others
Function: Regulates immune system
Hormone: thymosin, others
Functions: Regulates immune system
Hormones: Ephinephrin, norepinephrine, corticoids, sex hormones
Functions: Activates the sympathetic nervous system; controls salt balance, plays role in puberty and sexual function
Hormones: insulin, glucagon
Functions: regulates blood sugar
Hormones: sex hormones
Functions: Regulate reproduction and sexual functions; responsible for the secondary sex characteristics
The segments of DNA that are located on the chromosomes and are the basic units for the transmission of all hereditary traits.
Rod-shaped structures in the nuclei of body cells, which contain all the genes and carry all the genetic information necessary to make a human being.
An individual's genetic makeup
A pattern of inheritance in which any genes influence a trait
A patter of inheritance in which a trait is influenced by both genes and environmental factors
A field of research that uses twin studies and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior