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Explain how carbons valence determines the kinds and number of bonds carbon will form.
- Carbon has a valence of 4.
- Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.
Describe how carbon skeletons may vary. How does this variation contribute to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules.
- The skeletons vary in length and may be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings.
- Some carbon skeletons have double bonds, which vary in number and location.
Recognize the major functional groups. Describe the chemical properties of organic molecules in which they occur.
- hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phospate, and methyl.
- page 64/65
Describe how organic monomers are linked into organic polymers by dehydration/condesation synthesis recations.
- Dehydration-Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule.
- Condensation- to break using water.
Describe how organic polymers are broken down into organic monomers by hydrolosis decompostion reactions.
The bond between the monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule, with the hydrogen from the water attaching to one monomer and the hydroxyl group attaching to the adjacent monomer.
What are the four major classes of organic macromolecules found in organisms? describe their general structure. Describe the monomers of each of these macromolecules.
- Carbohydrates- sugars, polysaccharides, starches,glycogen, cellulose.
- Fats- saturated, unsaturated, trans, phospholipids, steroids.
- Nucleic Acids- polymers made of monomers called necleotides.
Decribe the properties, structure, and function of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
- monosaccharides-CH2O or variations of it.
- disaccharides- covalent bond between two monosaccharides.
- polysaccharides- macromolecules, polymers with a few hundres to a few thousand monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkages.
Fat, phospholipids, steroids.
- Fat- is constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. usually 16-18 carbons in length. Carbon at one end is part of the carboxyl group.