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Describe the two most common models of how society determines which acts are criminal.
the concensus model argues that the majority of citizens will agree on which activities should be outlawed and punished as crimes; it rests on the assumption that a diverse group of people can have similar morals.
in contrast the conflict model argues that in a diverse society, the dominant groups exercise power by codifying their value systems into criminal laws.
crime is an action punishable under criminal statues and is considered an offense against society. therefore, alleged criminals are prosecuted by the state rather than by victims. crimes are punishable by sanctions that bring about a loss of personal freedom or, in some cases fines.
6 types of crime
- 1. violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, battery, robbery.
- 2. property crimes. (pocket picking, shop lifting, larceny/theft, burglary, arson.
- 3.public order crimes (public drunkenness, prostitution, gambling, illicit drug use.
- 4. white collar crimes (fraud and embezzlement)
- 5. organized crime. (undertaken by a number of persons who operate their activities much as legal business do.
- 6. high tech crime (sabotage, fraud, embezzlement, and theft of proprietary data from computer system, cyber crimes, selling child pornography.
outline the three levels of law enforcement.
- because we have a federal system of government , law enforcement occurs at the;
- 1. national or federal level
- 2. state level (with in the states)
- 3. local levels (crime is a local concern)
- federal level include FBI,DEA, secret service
list the essential elements of corrections system.
criminal offenders are placed on probation, incarcerated in a jail or prison, transferred to community-based corrections facilities or released on parole.
Describe the layers of the "wedding cake" model
- the top layer consists of celebrity cases (most highly publicized).
- the second layer involves high-profile felonies (such as rape and murder)
- the thirds layer consists of property crimes, such as (larcenies and burglaries)
- the fourth layer consists of (misdemeanors)
explain the difference between the formal and informal criminal justice processes
the formal criminal justice process involves procedures such as booking, setting bail, and the like, for every step in the formal process, through, someone has discretion leads to an informal process. even when prosecutors believe that a suspect is guilty, they have the discretion not to prosecute.
contrast and crime control and due process models
- the crime control model assumes that the criminal justice is designed to protect the public from criminals, thus its important function is to punish and repress criminal conduct. (ohio vs Robinette 1996)
- The due process model presumes that the accused are innocent and provides them with the most complete safeguards, usually within the court system (Mapp vs Ohio 1961)
List the major issues in criminal justice today.
- 1. fear of crime
- 2. steady crime rates
- 3. the impact of an extended recession on crime rates
- 4. gun sales and gun control
- 5. use of illegal drugs
- 6. street gangs
- 7. law enforcement's focus on homeland security
- 8. the ever-expanding prison and jail population
- 9. possible bias against minorities in the criminal justice system
- 10. the diversion of nonviolent offenders from incarceration
- 11. the death penalty
The ________ model assumes that as people gather together to form a society, its members will naturally come to a basic agreement with regard to shared norms and values.
According to the ________ model, the victorious groups in society (social class, income, and age) exercise their power by codifying their value systems into criminal laws.
Which of the following are the three general goals of the modern criminal justice system?
- To control crime
- To prevent crime
- To provide and maintain justice
The Department of Homeland Security combined the police powers of ________ federal agencies.
________ is the most common correctional treatment, and it allows the offender to return to the community and remain under the supervision of an agent of the court.
________, which invalidated evidence if police gathered it improperly, was one of the court cases that comprised the "due process revolution."
ohio vs robinette
According to your text, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 is designed to strengthen the hand of law enforcement in its efforts to deter terrorism on American soil. The most important provisions include all of the following:
- 1.he Act gives law enforcement agents greater ability to use surveillance and wiretap methods, conduct searches, track Internet use, and access private records when investigating terrorist activity.
- 2. the Act allows detention and removal of noncitizens suspected of terrorist activities.
- 3.the Act created the new crime of "domestic terrorism."
Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.
- a hypothesis is a proposition, usually presented in an "if...then.." format, that can be tested by researchers. If enough different authorities are able to test and verify a hypothesis, it will usually be accepted as a theory.
- Because theories can offer explanation for behavior, criminologists often rely on them when trying to determine the causes of criminal behavior.
Explain why classical criminology is based on choice theory.
- Choice theory holds that those who commit crimes choose to do so.
- Classical criminology is based on a model of a person rationally making a choice before committing a crime-weighing the benefits against the costs.
Contrast positivism with classical criminology.
- whereas classical theorists believe criminals make rational choices,
- those of the positivists schools believe that criminal behavior is determined by psychological, biological, and social forces that the individual cannot control.
List and describe the three theories of social structure that help explain crime.
- social disorganization theory states that crime is largely a product of unfavorable conditions in certain communities or zones of disorganization. The strain theory argues that most people seek increased wealth and financial security and that the strain of not being able to achieve these goals legally leads to criminal behavior.
- Finally, cultural deviance theory asserts that people adapt to the values of the subculture-which has its own standards of behavior-to which they belong.
list and briefly explain the three branches of social process theory
- 1. learning theory, which contends that people learn to be criminals from their family and peers.
- 2. control theory-which holds that most of us are dissuaded from a life of crime because we place importance on the opinions of family and peers.
- 3. labeling theory, which holds that a person labeled a "junkie" or a "thief" will respond by becoming or remaining whatever she or he is labeled.
Describe how life course criminology differs from the other theories addressed in this chapter
- the five other theories addressed in the chapter link criminal behavior to factors-such as unemployment or poor schools-that effect an individual long after his or her personality has been established.
- Life course theories focus on behavioral patterns of childhood such as bullying, lying, and stealing as predictors of future criminal behavior.
Discuss the connection between offenders and victims of crime.
to a certain extent, those who are at the greatest risk of becoming criminal offenders are also those at the greatest risk of becoming victims of crimes. for this reason young, low-income african american males are disproportionately represent in american prison and jails and in victims statistics. In many major cities, law enforcement agencies have adjusted their strategies to account for the high percentage of violent crime victims who have criminal records themselves.
contrast the medical model of addiction with the criminal model of addiction.
those who support the former believe that addicts are not criminal but mentally or physically ill individuals who are forced into acts of petty crimes to "feed their habit" those in favor of the criminal model of addiction believe that abusers and addicts endanger society with their behavior and should be treated like any other criminals.
explain the theory of the chronic offender and its importance for the criminal justice system
a chronic offender is a juvenile or adult who commits multiple offenses. according to research conducted by marvin Wolfgang and others in the 1970s, chronic offender are responsible for disproportionately large percentage of all crimes. In the decades since, law enforcement agencies and public prosecutors have developed strategies to identify and convict chronic offenders with the goal of lessening overall crime rates. in addition, legislators have passed laws that provide longer sentences for chronic offenders in an attempt to keep them off the streets.
Discuss the primary goals of civil law and criminal law and explain how these goals are realized
- civil law is designed to resolve disputes between private individuals and other entities such as corporations. In these disputes , one party, called the plaintiff, tries to gain monetary damages by proving that the accused party or defendant, is to blame for a tort, or wrongful act.
- In contrast criminal law exists to protect society from criminal behavior. To that end, the government prosecutes defendants or persons who have been charged with committing a crime.
Explain the differences between crimes mala in se and mala prohibita
a criminal act is mala in se
if it is inherently wrong
- while a criminal act mala prohibita is illegal only because it is prohibited by the laws of particular society.
- it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between these two sorts of crimes because it is difficult to separate a crime from the culture that has deemed it a crime.
identify the publication in which the FBI reports crime data and list the three ways in which the data are reported.
- every year the FBI releases the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) in which it represents different crimes as
- 1. a rate per 100,000 people
- 2. a percentage change from the previous year
- 3. an absolute or aggregate number
distinguish between part I and part II offenses as defined in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
- part I. offenses are always felonies and include the most violent crimes.
- Part II. offenses include all other crimes recorded in the UCR. they can be either misdemeanor of felonies and constitute the majority of crimes committed.
Describe some of the shortcomings of the UCR as a crime-measuring tool.
to collect its data, the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) relies on citizens reporting crimes to the police and police passing this information on to the FBI. if either fails to do so, the UCR will not accurately reflect criminal activity in the United States. furthermore, the FBI and local law enforcement agencies do not always define crimes in the same manner, leading to inconsistencies in the data.
Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization survey (NCVS) and self-reported surveys.
The NCVS involves an annual survey of more than 40,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The survey queries citizens on crimes that have been committed against them. as such, the NCVS includes crimes not necessarily reported to police. self-report surveys in contrast involve asking individuals about criminal activity to which they may have been a party.
Identify the three factors most often used by criminologist to explain increased and declines in the nation's crime rate
- 1. levels of incarceration because an offender behing bars cannot commit any additional crimes and the threat of imprisonment acts as a deterrent to criminal behaviors
- 2. the size of the youth population because those under the age of twenty-four commit the majority of crimes in the united states
- 3.the health of the economy because when income and employment levels fall, those most directly affected may turn to crime for financial gain.
explain why issues of race and ethnicity tend to be overstated when it comes to crime trends
criminologists have found that the most consistent indicators of criminal behavior are circumstances such as low family earnings power and the absence of a parent. In addition, failure to obtain a high school diploma appears to have a positive correlation with criminal activity, regardless of the race or ethnicity of the individual, finally some believe that high arrest in low-income minority neighborhoods can be attributed to a willingness of police to arrest residents of these communities and of the court system to convict them
discuss the prevailing explanation for the rising number of women incarcerated in the united states
experts believe that many women are arrested and given harsh punishment for activity that would not have put them behind bars several decade ago. for the most part this activity is non-violent; the majority of females arrested are involved in drug and alcohol-related offenses and property crimes.