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The __________ is two layers that include phosphate containing fat molecules called_______ the form a fluid framework and another kind of fat molecule called __________ which assists in the stabilization of the phospholipid molecules to the prevent breakage.
- Plasma Membrane
The _______ is the internal living material of cells. It contains the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
Recieves and transports synthesized proteins; synthesizes lipids and certain carbohydrates. Like the roads or the canals of the cell.
What is the Rough ER?
The part of the endoplasmic recticulum that the ribosomes are attached to. Recieves and transports newly made proteins.
What is the Smooth ER?
Contains no ribosomes, and makes a new membrane for the cell.
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
Also made of membrane material, Looks like a stack of pita bread. Chemically processes and then ships moleclules from the ER. "UPS" of the cell. Mucus
______are little membrane bubble that fuse or split from the Golgi body.
- ATP synthesis-takes in glucose and oxygen and gives off, Carbon dioxide, water, and ENERGY
- Power plant of the cell
- Process is called aerobic respiration
a cell's digestive system
- function in cell reproduction or cell divsion
- paired in the cell
Move substances over surface of cell
Tail which allows the cell (in humans the sperm) to propel through fluids
Dictates protein synthesis, playing a role in cell activities
plays an essentail role in the formation of ribosomes
Which two kinds of cell structures contain DNA?
Chromatin and chromosomes
Type of transport through the membrane that does not require ATP.
Type of transport through the membrane that requires ATP>
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane when some of the solutes cannot cross the membrane.
How does an ion pump work? Is it active or passive?
The ion pump uses energy from ATP to actively move ions across cell membranes against their concentration gradient. It is active
When the cell engulfs and literally " eats" foreign material
How do genes determine the structure and function of the body?
Genes direct the synthesis of one kind of protein molecule that may function in a certain manner. They are base pairs within the chromosomes that make up our genetic code.
Where in the cell is genetic information stored?
Movement of water and solutes through a membrane.
An uphill movement, from lower to higher concentration.
Cellular drinking, allows cells to bring in fluids and dissolves substances.
The process used to reproduce cells
- Parent cells form two daughter cells
Human Genome Project
- All DNA in humans has been sequenced
- completed in 2000
- future in medicine
- Proteomics-study of all proteins encoded by human DNA
DNA and making Proteins
DNA has the master copy of instructions
- One gene (DNA) is copied into RNA
- Leaves the nucleus, travels to ribosomes in cytoplasm-mRNA
Ribosomes use RNA to arrange amino acids into proteins
The four main types of tissues
Found on bodies free surfaces
-skin , inside of digestive tract
single layer of cells
Many layer of cells
Shapes of epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissues held in place by basement membrane.
Simple squamous epithelium
- thin layer of cells
- good for absorbtion
stratified squamous epithelium
- several layers of closely packed cells
- specializes in protection
- resists abrasion
forms tubules specialized for secretory activity
release profucts directly to blood stream
- release products through a duct
- sweat oil digestive juices saliva
Simple columnar epithelium
- lines the stomach intestines ans othe tracts in the body
- contains goblet cells that produce mucous
stratified transitional epithelium
- found where strecj is needed
- urinary bladder
most abundantand widely distributed