anatomy cells

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anatomy cells
2011-09-19 23:00:47
cells tissues

chapter 3
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  1. The __________ is two layers that include phosphate containing fat molecules called_______ the form a fluid framework and another kind of fat molecule called __________ which assists in the stabilization of the phospholipid molecules to the prevent breakage.
    • Plasma Membrane
    • phospolipids
    • cholesterol
  2. The _______ is the internal living material of cells. It contains the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
  3. Synthesize protein
  4. Recieves and transports synthesized proteins; synthesizes lipids and certain carbohydrates. Like the roads or the canals of the cell.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  5. What is the Rough ER?
    The part of the endoplasmic recticulum that the ribosomes are attached to. Recieves and transports newly made proteins.
  6. What is the Smooth ER?
    Contains no ribosomes, and makes a new membrane for the cell.
  7. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    Also made of membrane material, Looks like a stack of pita bread. Chemically processes and then ships moleclules from the ER. "UPS" of the cell. Mucus
  8. ______are little membrane bubble that fuse or split from the Golgi body.
  9. Mitochondria
    • ATP synthesis-takes in glucose and oxygen and gives off, Carbon dioxide, water, and ENERGY
    • Power plant of the cell
    • Process is called aerobic respiration
  10. Lysosomes
    a cell's digestive system
  11. Centrioles
    • function in cell reproduction or cell divsion
    • paired in the cell
  12. Move substances over surface of cell
  13. Flagella
    Tail which allows the cell (in humans the sperm) to propel through fluids
  14. Nucleus
    Dictates protein synthesis, playing a role in cell activities
  15. Nucleoli
    plays an essentail role in the formation of ribosomes
  16. Which two kinds of cell structures contain DNA?
    Chromatin and chromosomes
  17. Type of transport through the membrane that does not require ATP.
  18. Type of transport through the membrane that requires ATP>
    Active transport
  19. What is osmosis?
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane when some of the solutes cannot cross the membrane.
  20. How does an ion pump work? Is it active or passive?
    The ion pump uses energy from ATP to actively move ions across cell membranes against their concentration gradient. It is active
  21. When the cell engulfs and literally " eats" foreign material
  22. How do genes determine the structure and function of the body?
    Genes direct the synthesis of one kind of protein molecule that may function in a certain manner. They are base pairs within the chromosomes that make up our genetic code.
  23. Where in the cell is genetic information stored?
  24. Movement of water and solutes through a membrane.
  25. An uphill movement, from lower to higher concentration.
  26. Cellular drinking, allows cells to bring in fluids and dissolves substances.
  27. The process used to reproduce cells
    • Mitosis
    • Parent cells form two daughter cells
  28. Human Genome Project
    • All DNA in humans has been sequenced
    • completed in 2000
    • future in medicine
    • Proteomics-study of all proteins encoded by human DNA
  29. DNA and making Proteins
    DNA has the master copy of instructions
  30. Transcription
    • One gene (DNA) is copied into RNA
    • Leaves the nucleus, travels to ribosomes in cytoplasm-mRNA
  31. Translation
    Ribosomes use RNA to arrange amino acids into proteins
  32. The four main types of tissues
    • -Epithelial
    • -Connective
    • -Muscle
    • -Nervous
  33. Found on bodies free surfaces
    -skin , inside of digestive tract
  34. single layer of cells
  35. stratified
    Many layer of cells
  36. Shapes of epithelial tissue
    • squamous
    • cubodial
    • columnar
    • transitional
  37. Epithelial tissues held in place by basement membrane.
  38. Simple squamous epithelium
    • thin layer of cells
    • good for absorbtion
  39. stratified squamous epithelium
    • several layers of closely packed cells
    • specializes in protection
    • resists abrasion
  40. simple cubodial
    forms tubules specialized for secretory activity
  41. Endocrine glands
    release profucts directly to blood stream
  42. exocrine
    • release products through a duct
    • sweat oil digestive juices saliva
  43. Simple columnar epithelium
    • lines the stomach intestines ans othe tracts in the body
    • contains goblet cells that produce mucous
  44. stratified transitional epithelium
    • found where strecj is needed
    • urinary bladder
  45. connective tissue
    most abundantand widely distributed