Why do antibiotics kill bacterial cells and not human cells? Specificallly in the case of penicillin?
What are bacterial cell walls made of?
peptidoglycan, a polymer made of sugars and amino acids
Describe the cell membrane and the orientation of phospholipids in the membrane.
Phospholipids assemble into bilayers in water. Water-hatingtails congregate betweenwater-loving heads, forming a lipid sandwich
What is diffusion?
the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution?
cells remain the same
Why are transport proteins needed by the cell?
provide a passageway for large or hydrophillic molecules to move across the membrane
What is facilitated diffusion? Does it require energy?
the process by which large or hydrophobic solutes move across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the help of transport proteins. DOES NOT REQUIRE ENERGY
What is active transport? Does it require energy?
process by which solutes are pumped from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration with the help of transport proteins. REQUIRES ENERGY
What are ribosomes and what do they do?
a complex of RNA and protein that carries out protein synthesis in all cells
What is the function of chloroplasts?
site of photosynthesis
What is the function of lysosomes?
filled with enzymes that can degrade worn-out cellular structures
What is the function of mitochondria?
membrane-bound organelles responsible for important energy conservation ractions in eukaryotes
What is the function of the nucleus?
stores genetic material
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
a network of protein fibers in eukaryotic cells that provides strucuture and facilitates cell movement.
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
the theory that freeliving prokaryotic cells engulfed other freeliving prokaryotic cells billions of years ago forming eukaryotic organelles such asw mitochondria and chloroplasts
What are the four macronutrients?
proteins, carbohydratesw, fats, nucleic acids
How do human bodies utilize macronutrients?
nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, that organisms must ingest in large amounts to maintain health
What is an essiential amino acid?
eight amino acids in the human body cannot synthesize and must be obtained from food
What is a non-essential amino acid?
amino acids that our body can produce itself
What are enzymes?
a protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions
What do enzymes do?
accelerate chemical reactions
How do enzymes work?
reduce the activation energy
What is activation energy?
the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed.
What is substrate?
a compound or molecule that an enzyme binds to and on which it acts
What is a catabolic reaction?
any chemical reaction that breaks down complex molecules into simpler molecules
What is an anabolic reaction?
any chemical reaction that combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
type 1: cannot make insulin
type 2: the receptors on their cells respond poorly to insulin