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2011-09-27 00:10:20

Ch.2.Models & NTs
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  1. What are genes?
    Long molecules of DNA

    Double Helix structure

    Located on chromosomes

    46 chromosomes in 23 pairs

    Pairs 1 – 22 = body and brain development

    Pair 23 = gender
  2. What is geno/pheno type?
    Geno: genetic composition of a person.

    Pheno: Observable characteristic of a person which can change over time.
  3. What does the CNS (central nervous system) contain?
    1) brain

    2) spinal cord
  4. What is the CNS responsible for?
    Processing info. from our sensory organs such as eyes and ears and prompting our bodies into action.
  5. What is the PNS (peripheral nervous system)?
    -Helps control muscles and voluntary movement.

    -Regulates cardovascular and endocrine systems.

    -Assists w/ digestion

    -Regulates body temp.
  6. What are the nervous systems composed of?
    Billions of neurons.
  7. What are the four major components of a neuron?
    • 1) cell body
    • 2) dendrites
    • 3) one or more axons
    • 5) terminal buttons
  8. Define serotonin.
    • Processing of information; regulation of mood,
    • behavior, and thought processes.
  9. Define Norepinephrine.
    Regulation of arousal, mood, behavior, and sleep.
  10. Define Dopamine.
    Influences novelty-seeking, sociability, pleasure,

    motivation, coordinaiton, and motor movement.
  11. Define Gamma Aminobutyric
    Acid (GABA).
    • Regulation of mood, especially anxiety,
    • arousal, and behavior.
  12. Define Acetylcholine
    • Important in motor behavior, arousal, reward,
    • attention, learning, and behavior.
  13. Define Glutamate.
    Influences learning, memory.
  14. What is the Psychodynamic Model?
    focuses on internal mental structures.

    -Assumes mental states, emotions, and behaviors arise from motives & conflicts within a person.
  15. What are some basic principles of the Psychodynamic Model?
    -childhood experiences shape adulthood personality.

    -causes & purposes of human behavior are not always obvious but partly unconsious.

    -people use defense mechanisms to control axiety or stress.

    -Everything we do has meaning and purpose and is goal-directed.
  16. The Psychodynamic Model is rooted by to whom?

    The Biological Model is rooted back to whom?


    Behavioral Perspective?
    Sigmund Freud

    Emil Kraeplin

    Abraham Maslow

    Ivan Pavlov
  17. Define defense mechanism.
    Strategies used to cope with stress or conflicts w/ others.
  18. According to psychodynamic theorists, what is the structure of the mind composed of?
    -id, ego, superego.
  19. Explain the term "id" and its purpose.
    the portion of the personality that is present at birth.

    -Its purpose is to seek immediate gratification and discharge tension asap.

    -Uses primary process

    hedonists, babies who cry due to impatience.
  20. Explain the "ego" and its purpose.
    An organized, rational system that uses higher order thinknig processes to obtain gratification.

    -Operates along the reality principle, or need to delay gratification of impuleses to meet environmental demands.

    • -Uses secondary process
    • -The "hallmark" of mental health.
  21. Explain "superego" and its purpose.
    • Develops in early childhood and represents societal deals & values conveyed by parents thru rewards & punishments (right & wrong)
  22. What are the two principles of the "behavioral perspective?" Define them.

    (Combined to form the cognitive-behavioral model)
    1) Classical conditioning: learning by association.

    2) Operant Conditioning: behavior followed by positive or pleasurable consequences will likely be repeated.