A permanent bulging and stretching of an artery, in which the dilation is two times or greater the size of the artery
Pharmaceuticals that prevent further clot formation in the body.
Loss of voice.
Hardening of the arteries and defined as a thickening and solidifying of the endothelial lining of the walls in small arteries and arterioles
An adventitious sound of venous or arterial origin heard during auscultation.
An occlusive disease mostly located in small to medium-sized arteries and occasionally in veins. Though commonly found in the upper and lower distal extremities, it is associated with clot formation and fibrosis of the vessel wall In prolonged cases, large extremities vessels may be affected.
A mechanical method of eliminating necrotic tissue.
Dorsiflexing the foot, causing pain in the calf.
Elevated blood cholesterol levels
Venous disease caused by unilateral vasospasm of the upper and lower extremities Bilateral vasospasm is identified as Raynaud's disease, usually occurs in the age group over 30 and is equally distributed between genders.
subclavian steal syndrome
Occurs when the subclavian artery is occluded, and blood flow is diminished or obstructed to the upper extremities.
The inflammation of a vein accompanied by the formation of thrombus (blood clot), which can be dislodged and lead to pulmonary emboli. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a term often used for this venous complication, which most commonly occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities
Tortuous varicosities, in which the veins are dilated and lack surrounding muscle support
venous stasis ulcers
Erosions of the skin because of lack of blood flow to the extremity, which leads to skin necrosis, open wounds, and black, hardened skin known as eschar.