Philosophy1.txt

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Philosophy1.txt
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2011-09-20 13:01:39
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Philosophy
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test 1
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  1. Rigoberta Menchu
    Indian woman in Guatemala; the new baby belongs to the community not just the parents.
  2. Paul Krugman
    Republicans against Science, Post Dispatch article, Gilleo wrote in about how science and religion are not incompatiable
  3. Thich Nhat Hahn
    Monk that was great friends with MLK Jr.
  4. Philosophy
    Study of Wisdom
  5. Metaphysics
    branch of philosophy that investigates what is real
  6. Epistemology
    Branch of philosophy dealing with the study of knowledge, what it is, and how we acquire it.
  7. Axiology
    Branch of philosophy dealing with study of values
  8. Relativism
    view that truth has no objective standard and may vary from individual to individual, from group to group and from time to time
  9. Socrates
    Greek Philosopher that never wrote anything down
  10. Socratic method
    The method of dialect, reported in Plato�s dialogues
  11. dialectic
    The method of questioning used by Socrates in pursuit to the truth
  12. Plato
    Socrates student that wrote down all of what Socrates said in the form of dialogues. He then was a great philosopher himself and went on to teach Aristotle.
  13. Idealism
    in metaphysics (�what is real�) the belief that the most real entities are ideas and other immaterial entities
  14. Materialism
    in ontology the belief that reality is essentially matter
  15. Virtue
    for Aristotle, life lived in accordance with the highest human capacity, reason.
  16. Virtue Ethics
    Ethical theory that uses as a moral standard what a virtuous person would do, rather than consequences or obligations; the primary question is , what kind of person should I be?
  17. Golden Mean
    moderate action between undesirable extremes; used by Aristotle to describe an ethical ideal
  18. Siddhartha Gautama
    Founder of Buddhism
  19. Buddha
    the enlightened one, Siddhartha Gautama
  20. Asceticism
    manner of life, practices, or principles of an ascetic; extreme abstinence
  21. eightfold path
    • 1. Right to Belief: to believe in the Four Noble Truths
    • 2. Right Intention: overcoming desires.
    • 3. Right Speech: to tell the truth to speak kindly and gently; talk only when necessary.
    • 4. Right Conduct: 5 precepts- 1, do not kill 2, do not steal 3, do not lie 4, do not be unchaste 5, do not drink intoxicating drinks.
    • 5. Right Livelihood: earn one�s living righteously, legally, and peacefully. No weapons, dealing in living beings, slaughter of animals, selling harmful intoxicants
    • 6. Right Effort: discriminate between wise and unwise attachments
    • 7. Right Mindfulness: Concentrate task at hand
    • 8. Right meditation: focus, calm, or empty the mind.
  22. Tripartite soul
    Plato�s theory of a three-part human nature ideally ruled by reason
  23. monist
    A pre-Socratic philosopher who believed that arche was a unified whole or any philosopher who believes reality its one.
  24. pluralist
    A pre-Socratic philosopher who believed that arche was multiple or any philosopher who believes reality is plural.
  25. Sophists
    A teacher of practical applications for philosophy in early Greece.
  26. Arche
    prinicple or basic stuff from which everything derives
  27. Thales
    a Milesian mathematician predicted an eclipse of the Sun would occur at thhat exact moment and it did.
  28. Anaximander
    Student of Thales who learned then developed an original idea; Theory was that water was the arche. Infinite or boundless
  29. Anaximenes
    Found Anaximander's idea too vague but believed that the arche was air not water.
  30. Pythagoras
    Believed that math made up the arche.
  31. Heraclitus
    was a nobleman from Ephesus in what was then Asia Minor now is Turkey.
  32. Empedocles
    Was a prince who was offered the kingship in Sicily but declined it. He wrote songs and practiced rhetoric. He saw himself as a prohphet and recalled that he brought the dead to life.
  33. Democritus
    Devoted his life to science and travel wrote more than 60 books and none survived.
  34. Anaxagoras
    First Athenian philosopher who was a persian but then defected and settled in Athens.
  35. Dualism
    the view that there are just two mutually irreducible substances monism and pluralism.
  36. Aristotle
    Student of Plato but did not necessarily agree with Plato.
  37. Aristotle�s 4 causes
    • 1. Cause means the material from which something is made
    • 2. the form or pattern according to which something is made
    • 3. that from which a change begins or ceases.
    • 4. the end or that for which a thing exists.
  38. Bodhisattva
    person who has attained englightenment.
  39. Samsara
    coming to existence
  40. Nirvana
    absolute englightenment no pain, worry and the external world
  41. Lao-tzu
    creator of Taoism; chinese philosopher
  42. Tao
    virtue of which all things happen or exist
  43. Ch�i
    chinese dynasty
  44. Yin
    Dark, negative, and feminine
  45. Yang
    one positive, bright and masculine.
  46. Tao Te Ching
    philosopical book in verse supposedly written by Lao-Tzu
  47. Chuang Tzu
    fundamental worked on Taoism
  48. W.E.B. DuBois
    Author of souls of black folks.

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