Patho Unit 2

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Author:
rstoth
ID:
103069
Filename:
Patho Unit 2
Updated:
2011-09-20 13:53:04
Tags:
nutrition disorders
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Description:
chapter 10
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  1. calorie (c)
    kilocalorie (C)
    • heat units
    • amount of heat needed to raise 1g water by 1oC
    • amt needed to raise 1kg water by 1o C
  2. oxidation values
    • protein 4 kcal/g
    • fat 9 kcal/g
    • carb 4 kcal/g
  3. energy storage
    • carb- converted to glucose stored as glycogen in liver & muscle; when liver loaded w/ carb converts glucose to triglycerides
    • protein- amino acids stored as structural protein, enzymes, nucleoproteins
    • insulin- required for fat storage; forms a-glycerol phosphate that helps combine w/ fatty acids to form triglycerides
  4. adipose tissue (adipocytes)
    • fibroblasts that store pure triglycerides
    • constitute organ metabolically active in uptake, synthesis, storage, & mobilization of lipids
  5. white fat
    • spherical cells that become polyhedral when full
    • energy storage, insulation, cushioning of organs
    • retains space filling function even during reduces caloric intake
  6. brown fat
    • thermogenic
    • neonates & hibernating animals
  7. estimated average requirement (EAR)
    intake meets estimated need of half people in age group
  8. tolerable upper intake level (UL)
    max intake judged not likely to pose health risk in health people in population
  9. calorie requirements by age
    • birth-115 kcal/kg
    • 1 year- 105
    • 1-10: 80
    • adolescents: boys-45, girls 38
    • pregnancy- +300/day
    • lactating- +500/day
  10. essential proteins
    • leucine
    • isoleucine
    • methionine
    • phenylalanine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • valine
    • lysine
    • histidine
  11. nitrogen balance
    • nitrogen excterion indicator of protein intake
    • + balance: more consumed than excreted; growth, pregnancy, healing after injury
    • - balance: more excreted than consumed; fever, illness, infection, trauma, burns
  12. saturated fats
    • solid at room temperature
    • animal sources, coconut & palm oils
    • elevate cholesterol
  13. unsaturated fats
    • lower cholesterol
    • plant sources
    • liquid at room temp
  14. dietary fat provide:
    • energy
    • function as carriers for fat soluable vitamins
    • precursore of prostaglandins
    • source of fatty acids
  15. carb intake
    • 50-100 g/day
    • prevent ketoacidosis from protein break-down
  16. vitamins
    • organic compounds act as catalysts
    • must cause disease if deficient to be vitamin
    • part of enzyme systems required for: release of energy from protein, fat & carb, formation of RBC, hormone, genetic materials, nervous system
  17. feedback for hunger
    • regulated in hypothalmus
    • ghrelin released from stomach & sm intestine stimulate hypothalmus for hunger
    • stretch receptors, leptin from fat cells, GLP-1, insulin, & CCK are GI hormones that suppress further feeding
  18. short term regulation of hunger
    • rapid feedback that signals satiety before digestion
    • stretch receptors in stomach (vagus nerve), oral receptors & gi hormones
  19. intermediate & long-term regulation of hinger
    • amount of nutrients in blood & storage sites
    • < glucose causes hunger
    • > ketoacids decrease appetite
    • stimulation of leptin receptors in hypothalmus < appetite & > metabolic rate
  20. BMI calculation
    weight (kg)/height(m2)
  21. BMI classifications
    • underweight <18.5
    • normal 18.5-24.9
    • overweight 25-29.9
    • obese I 30-34.9
    • obese II 35-39.9
    • extreme obese III >40
  22. adipose tissue as endocrine organ
    • produced hormones
    • leptin- mediator of weight; signal to hypothalmus; defiency causes hyperphagia, impaired thermogenesis, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia
    • resistin- regulates sensitivity of insulin
  23. adipose tissue & inflammatory process
    • chronic inflammatory response- abnormal cytokine production, increase acute-phase reactants (CRP), activation of pro-inflammatory signal pathways
    • obesity related insulin resistance
    • atherosclerotic CV disease- endothelial dysfunction, lipid increase, htn, vascular inflammation
  24. visceral fat stores
    • intra-abdominal
    • more lipid active than sub-q
    • > potential to alter liver metabolism
    • produce more adipokines (TNF)
  25. cardiometabolic risk factors
    risk of diabetes, MI, stroke due to: dyslipedemia, HTN, insulin resistance, high glucose, inflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, prothrombotic state
  26. obesity in children definition
    • BMI above 95% for age & sex
    • overweight- 85-95%
  27. protein-energy malnutrition
    depletion of body's lean tissues (skeletal muscle tissue [somatic], viscera [organs], blood & immune cells)
  28. marasmus
    • protein/calorie def
    • loss of muscle mass
    • growth failure
    • loss of sub-q fat
    • depressed hr, bp, temp
  29. kwashiorkor
    • protein def.
    • hypoalbuminemia- edema
    • discolored hair- sandy or red w/ linear depigmentation
    • normal sub-q fat

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