comparative foreign policy

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Dear_sydneyy
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103091
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comparative foreign policy
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2011-09-20 17:29:59
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sydney lancaster
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comparative foreign policy
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  1. Classical realists
    Bottom up approach (human nature)
  2. Neo-realists (structural)
    Top down approach
  3. realist as pessimist, why?
    • all are pessimists or believe that conflict is just around the corner
    • 1. human nature - greed, manipulative, hostile
    • 2. states are the manifestation of man
  4. "the game"
    • anarchy creates governing rules shaping behavior
    • self interest
    • uncertainty
    • fear
  5. Realists
    • always pessimistic because of human nature
    • anarchy = self interest, uncertainty, fear
    • states are the focus- they set the rules
    • rational thinkers - max. ben. -- min. costs
    • national security = most important
    • power creates hierarchy
    • "do we need to do _____?"
  6. Liberalism
    • optimistic
    • conflict is based on the condition in which we live
    • 1. establish democratic governments
    • 2. emphases in free trade
    • 3. advocacy of international institutions
    • 4. advocate norms/behaviors
    • 5. br more proactive in a positive way
  7. Neocon
    • US approach
    • increase defense spending
    • we have a global responsibility
    • preserve and extend an international order
  8. Levels of analysis
    • individual level
    • state level
    • systematic level
  9. individual level
    distinctive traits, experiences and behaviors of those responsible for making important decisions on behalf of state and nonstate actors as well as ordinary citizens who behaviors has important political consequences
  10. state level
    study of world politics that emphasizes how the internal attributes of states influence their FP behavior.
  11. systematic level
    • study of world politics that emphasizes the impact of international structures and processes on global actors.
    • 1. distribution og resources
    • 2. military capabilities
    • 3. alliance networks
    • 4. economic interdependence
  12. RAM (rational actor model)
    • used in a perfect world
    • maximization of preferences (utility curve important)
    • one question: which choice of action best maximizes national goals and minimizes costs?
    • "logic" games or scenarios
  13. RAM (steps)
    • 1. define a problem
    • 2. identify goals
    • 3. gather info
    • 4. identify alternative means
    • 5. analyze each possible alternative
    • 6. choose
    • 7. implement
    • 8. monitor and evaluate
    • 9. terminate/alter/continue
  14. game theory
    • rational or attempted rational behavior
    • key is interdependence
    • purpose is two fold
    • 1. normative
    • 2. empirical
    • based on fundamental assumptions
    • 1. mankind is rational
    • 2. utility of payoff can be calculated and quantified
  15. types of game theory
    • 1. zero-sum
    • 2. chicken
    • 3. prisoners' dilemma
  16. Deterrence
    • peace is kept through maintaining credible threats against one's opponent.
    • A threatens punishment on B
    • 1. A has the capability to retaliate effectively
    • 2. A has a will or intention to do so
    • that establishes credibility.
    • * works best when power capabilities are closer together
  17. criticisms of deterrence
    • 1. assumes too much rationality
    • - misperception
    • - take irrationality into account
    • - development of "perfect deterrence" theory
    • 2. factors outside of classical deterrence
    • - even when done correctly, can still result in conflict
    • - domestic constraints and vulnerability
  18. Coercion
    • power instruments used to accomplish FP goals
    • - threat or application
    • - military, economic, diplomatic
    • - must remain low-level conflict
    • - valuable tool of great power politics
  19. Coercion equation
    clear and consistent demand + potent and credible threat = successful coercive diplomacy
  20. Fact is the "rational" assumption really does make an "ass" out of you and me (1-9)
    • 1. not all dicision makers are rational
    • 2. misperceptions always exist
    • 3. human frailties - we are all weak
    • 4. quantity or quality of info - too much is overwhelming and too little we cant make a decision
    • 5. time, we always want what we cant have - being put under pressure or react in a crisis
    • 6. imperfect prognostication - cant predict the future
    • 7. beyond rational assessment - too high of a standard you expect some error, cost of failure is exponential
    • 8. daunting task - steer away from systems where 1 person is in charge
  21. when do individuals have an impact?
    • 1. procedures dictate it
    • 2. when there is flexibility in the process
    • 3. the leader has a personal or vested interest
    • 4. the more intense the crisis
    • 5. when info is low or on overload
    • 6. with little experience or training
  22. basic psychological needs
    • 1. physical - food, water, air, sex
    • 2. safety needs - assurance of survival, security
    • 3. affection and belongingness needs - love
    • 4. esteem needs - self-esteem and respect of others
    • 5. self-actualization or self-development needs
  23. personality traits
    • *starting level for FP
    • dogmatic
    • authoritarian
    • domineering
    • extroverted vs. intoverted
    • narcissism
  24. Image
    • organized representations of certain attributes
    • - leads to belief systems which leads to operational codes
  25. importance of operational codes
    • not mechanically applied
    • one of many factors to consider
    • provides a filter for the decision maker
    • regardless of how "good" our operational codes are, misperceptions will cause policy faults
  26. most common misperceptions
    • 1. the opponent and their intentions
    • - exaggeration
    • - overperception
    • 2. strength or weakness of either side
    • 3. intentions or capabilities of a 3rd state
    • 4. image of oneself and others image of you
  27. cognitive approach
    "emphasizes the ways in which human cognitive limitations distort decision-making by gross simplification in problem representation and information proessing"
  28. motivational approach
    strong needs to construct and maintain positive image

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