Biology

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Author:
suarez_j15
ID:
103133
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2011-09-21 19:19:01
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Biology San Antonio College 2401 Bio2401 SAC
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Study guide for Test #1
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  1. Supine Position
    a position where the person is lying with the face upward, or lying on the back surface of the body
  2. Prone Position
    a position where the person is lying with the face downward, or lying on the front surface of the body
  3. Axial Region
    consists of the head, the neck, and the trunk
  4. Appendicular Region
    consists of the appendages (limbs or extremities)
  5. Superior (Cephalic/Cranial)
    • upper surface of an organ or structure
    • a location at a higher level
    • Ex: the head is superior to the feet
  6. Inferior (Caudal)
    • lower surface of an organ or structure
    • a location at a lower level
    • Ex: the feet are inferior to the head
  7. Anterior (Ventral)
    • front or ventral surface of the body
    • a location in/at the front of the structure
    • affecting the front of a structure
    • a direction toward the front of a structure
  8. Posterior (dorsal)
    • back or dorsal surface of the body
    • a location in/at the back of the structure
    • affecting the back of a structure
    • a direction toward the back of a structure
  9. Medial
    • location at the mid-line
    • direction toward the mid-line
  10. Lateral
    • location away from the mid-line
    • direction away from the mid-line
  11. Intermediate
    location between two structures
  12. Proximal
    • closer to the point of attachment of the appendage or limb
    • closer to origin of structure
  13. Distal
    • farther from the attachment of the appendage or limb
    • farther from the origin of the structure
  14. Superficial
    :refers to a location toward or at the surface of the body or a structure
  15. Deep
    :refers to a location away from or at the surface of the body or a structure
  16. Sagittal Planes
    anteroposterior planes that divides the body, or a structure, into right and left portions
  17. Midsagittal Plane (Median)
    a midline sagittal plane that divides the body, or structure, into equal right and left halves
  18. Parasagittal Plane
    sagittal plane that does not divide the body, or a structure, into equal right and left halves
  19. Frontal Plane (Coronal)
    vertical plane that divides the body, or a structure, into anterior and posterior portions
  20. Transverse Plane (Horizontal)
    horizontal plane (at a right angle to a vertical plane) that divides the body, or a structure, into superior and inferior portions
  21. Identify body cavities
    • 1. Cranial Cavity
    • 2. Vertebral Cavity
    • 3. Spinal Cavity
    • 4. Thoratic Cavity
    • 5. Ventral Body Cavity
    • 6. Abdominal Cavity
    • 7. Pelvic Cavity
  22. Identify Abdominopelvic Regions
  23. How does the depth of field change for each of the 3 lens systems?
    Increase magnification, decrease depth of field
  24. Matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  25. Element
    simple substance which cannot be decomposed or broken down into simpler matter by any chemical change
  26. List the 6 elements that make up 99% of living tissue
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium
  27. Atoms
    smallest particle of an element
  28. Atoms 3 subatomic particles
    Protons, neutrons, electrons
  29. True or false
    There are a maximum number of electrons that occur at each energy level
    TRUE
  30. Isotopes
    atoms of the same element that differ in mass because they contain different number of neutrons
  31. 2 characteristics of isotopes that are important to research
    • All isotopes of the same element have the:
    • 1. Same chemical properties
    • 2. Different physical properties
  32. Stable Inert
    • they occur in nature as individual atoms
    • Ex: noble gases- helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon
  33. Ionic Bonds
    Chemical bonds resulting from the electrical attraction between opposite charges
  34. How are Ionic Bonds formed?
    By transfer of electrons from one to another resulting in the atoms being held together by ionic bonds
  35. Ion
    An atom that loses or gains elections - so it's a charged atom
  36. Covalent Bonds
    Chemicals resulting from the sharing of electrons by atoms
  37. How are Covalent Bonds formed?
    By atoms sharing electrons resulting in the atoms being held together by covalent bonds
  38. Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
    an EQUAL sharing of electrons by the atoms forming the covalent bond so the electrical charge is evenly distributed about both ends of the molecule
  39. Polar Covalent Bonds
    NOT an equal sharing of the electrons by the atoms forming the covalent bond so one end of the molecule has slight positive charge and the other end has a slight negative charge
  40. Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds
    • Single-atoms share 1 pair of electrons
    • Ex: C-H
    • Double-atoms share 2 pairs of electrons
    • Ex: O=O
    • Triple- atoms share 3 pairs of electrons
    • Ex: N N
  41. Hydrogen Bonds
    Bond formed by the attraction of a H atom with a positive charge from one molecule to an atom with a negative charge on another molecule
  42. Which of the bonds is the strongest? Weakest?
    • Covalent Bonds are the strongest
    • Hydrogen Bonds are the weakest
  43. Distinguish between a molecule and a compound
    • Compound- a substance consisting of atoms of 2 or more different elements chemically combined
    • Ex: H2O, CH4, and NaCl
    • Molecule- a chemical unit consisting of 2 or more atoms chemically combined
    • Ex: H2O, CH4, O2, N2
  44. Distinguish between Organic and Inorganic compounds
    • Organic- compounds containing both C and H atoms
    • Inorganic- compounds lacking either C or H or both
  45. Percentage of water in living organisms
    50-90%
  46. Properties that make water special and necessary for life
    hydrogen bonding between water molecules and other substances make life possible
  47. Acid
    substance that donates or increases the hydrogen ions {H+} of a solution
  48. Base
    substance that decreases the hydrogen ions of a solution
  49. Describe and interpret the pH scale
    • Scale used to measure solution
    • 0-14
    • pH of 7 is neutral
    • pH greater than 7 is basic
    • pH less than 7 is acid
  50. Buffers
    substance that maintain a constant pH of a solution by removing H+ as their concentration increases or releasing pH+ as their concentration decreases
  51. Significance of Buffers
    They keep the pH of the solutions within organisms constant; allowing physiological reactions to occur
  52. Carbohydrates
    • Composed of C, H, and O atoms
    • Occur in 1:2:1 ratio
    • Most readily source of energy to sustain life
    • Monosaccharides are the building blocks
  53. Types of Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  54. Monosaccharides
    • 1 unit sugars - smallest and simplest carb molecules - building blocks of the larger carb molecules
    • Ex: Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose
  55. Disaccharides
    • 2 unit sugars - consists of 2 monosaccharide molecules joined chemically
    • Ex: Maltose, Sucrose, and Lactose
  56. Polysaccharides
    • The many - unit sugars - they consist of 10 or more monosaccharides joined chemically - the largest carb molecules
    • Ex: Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
  57. Chemical reaction to synthesize Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
    Condensation reaction - H2O is produced (is product)
  58. Chemical reaction to break down Disaccharides and Polysaccharides and their building blocks
    Hydrolysis reaction - H2O is used up (is reactant)
  59. 5 Types of Lipids
    Fats (Triglycerides), fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes
  60. How do Lipds differ from Carbs and Proteins?
    They are insoluble in H2O

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