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strategies used to elicit, maintain, increase, or decrease emotions consciously and non-consciously
process model of emotion regulation
- 1. situation selection: we have choices of situations we put ourselves thru
- 2. situation modification: ways to prevent emotions thru changing subtle things
- 3. attention aspects: control the attentional aspects, choose what you attend to
- 4. cognitive reappraisal: change in interpretation of the event, try to neutralize stimulus by changing label of situations, a good way to decrease emotion
- 5. emotion –> feelings, behavior, and psychological response
What makes up the antecedent focus?
- situation selection
- situation modification
- attention aspects
- cognitive reappraisals
What makes up the response focus?
- feelings, behavior, and physiological response
Emotion Regulations – Gross Studies
- watch movies (disgust, sad)
- IV: reappraise (r) – adopt a detached and unemotional perspective, suppress (s) – while watching behave in a way that no one could tell, control
- DV: facial expressions, self-report, physiological changes
Results for Negative emotion to Gross Studies
- Facial Exp: Control > supp + reappr.
- S-R: Supp = control > Reappr.
- BP: Supp > Control > Reappr
- Suppression does NOT make negative emotion go away
- reapp. seems to help in decreasing emotion
- when supp. hide emotion BP increases
- Supp. fell just as much emotion as those in the control group
Results for Positive emotion to Gross Studies
- Suppression –> decreases S-R
- takes away some joy/pleasure
Coping w/ Stress – Pennebaker (1993)
- IV: Topic: write about a personal experience OR neural topic
- DV: Health measures
- Task: write 15-20 min for 3-5 days
Results to Pennebaker Exp.
- Experimental group experienced
- less health visits
- increase in immune fxning lasting days after writing
- decrease absent from work
- increase liver fxning
- NOT changing health behvaiors (ex. not less smoking)
High improvement vs. Low Improvement in Pennebaker exp.
- Hi improvement used words of insight and causation, which increased across sesstions (ex. realize, because, word that demonstrate insight)
- decrease # of unique words over time
process of managing external or internal that are appraised as impacting
Human and Stress Study – Camm et al.
- Stressor: Movie "Alive"
- IV: 2nd film (humor, nature, no film)
- DV: change in S-R (anxiety + happiness)
Results of Camm et al. – for positive emotion
Humor > Nature = No film
Results of Camm et al. – for anxiety
No film > humor = nature
Summary of Camm et al.
- distraction decreases sadness
- humor increase happiness
Other finding in Camm et al.
- Humor decrease anticipatory anxiety (ex. shock)
- changes in discomfort threshold (reduces pain); better than just distraction
Changing Happiness Levels (Seligman et al.)
- IV: one week
- control (early memories)
- gratitude visit (construct letter)
- 3 good things in life (each day, write 3 things that went well and what caused it)
- you at your best (1 story and write about it and review its strengths)
- using signature strengths in new ways (list top 5 and use strengths in new ways for a week)
- identifying signature strengths (applying it and new different way everyday)
- DV: change in happiness (pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life)
Results to Seligman et al. exp
- increase in happiness
- gratitude: up to 1 month
- 3 good things in life (after 6 months they were still showing higher happiness levels)
- using signature strengths in new ways (also 6 months)
Types of social support
Problem solving and emotion focused
Problem solving efforts
- constructive attempts
- concrete advising, problem focused approach
Emotion focused coping
- regulate emotion
- comfort, empathy, validation
- choosing one that you feel like
- ex. dont want to hear how to solve problem call a friend that will just listen
Exercise and stress
- may serve as a buffer against stress and negative affect
- helps recover from negative experience