GOL 131 Vocab

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allieralston
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103143
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GOL 131 Vocab
Updated:
2011-09-23 10:54:04
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Geology 131
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Geology test review
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  1. which plate boundaries are moving away from each other?
    Divergent
  2. At ___________, there is underwater seperation of the plate (ex. Mid Atlantic Ridge).
    Mid ocean ridges
  3. A ____ _____ is the continental seperation of the plates. (ex. East African Rift, Iceland)
    rift valley
  4. ________ plate boundaries are where lithospheric plates are moving towards each other.
    Convergent
  5. ________ plate boundaries are where lithospheric plates are slowly moving past each other.
    Transform
  6. Identify which magma is described here:
    -very silica, poor magma
    -rich in iron and magnesium
    -magma does not errupt at the earth's surface any more because it requires temperatures that are too hot.
    ultramafic
  7. Identify which magma is described here:
    -exists at high temperatures
    -is a fluid
    -low viscosity
    -low silica content
    Mafic
  8. Identify which magma is described here:
    -exists at mid-range temperatures
    -a mix of features from both mafic and felsoic magmas
    Intermediate (andesitic)
  9. Identify which magma is described here:
    -relatively low temperatures
    -very rich in silica
    -produce very violent eruptions
    Felsic (granitic)
  10. ________ is the resistance to flow.
    Viscosity
  11. What are intrusive bodies of crystallized igneous rocks that forms underground?
    Plutons
  12. ______ pluton- much smaller exposed surface area.
    stock
  13. largest intrusive bodies. Form when layers erode around an igneous rock and it becomes exposed at the surface.
    Batholiths
  14. mushroom-shaped intrusions at relatively shallow depths. These intrusions start to inject between layers but then dome upward.
    Lacoliths
  15. sheet-like intrusions that intrude between the layers of country rock. (occur at shallow depths because of underlying pressure)
    sills
  16. sheet like intrusions that cut across the country rock.
    dikes
  17. The outer layer that consists of crust and upper mantle and is primarily solid, brittle rock broken into giant plates.
    the lithosphere
  18. ________ ______ flow very slowly through the Asthenosphere.
    Convection currents
  19. which rock group were formed from molten material?
    igneous
  20. which rock group are rocks that are broken down from other rocks?
    sedimentary
  21. Which rock group are rocks altered by heat and pressure?
    Metamorphic
  22. Most _______ are minerals that are cut and polished along clevage surfaces.
    gemstones
  23. List five characteristics about minerals
    (hint: INCFD)
    • 1) inorganic
    • 2) naturally occuring
    • 3) crystalline solid
    • 4) fixed chemical composition
    • 5) definite physical properties
  24. Six textures in igneous rocks:
    • aphantic
    • planeritic
    • porphyritic
    • glassy
    • pyroclastic
    • vescular
  25. List three examples of the sources of Earth's heat.
    • form formation of Earth's creation
    • radioactive decay from elements like Uranium and Potassium
    • isotopes decaying
  26. True or false:
    Oceanic crust is basaltic in nature, very thin, very young, and less deformed than continental crust.
    True
  27. Which of the following describes continental crust?
    A. basaltic in nature
    B. less deformed
    C. no more than 200 million years old
    D. very thick (50 km)
    D. very thick (50 km)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. ________ "coarse-grained" igneous rocks cool slowly underground The minerals have time to organize and grow larger. _________ "fine-grained" igneous rocks cool very rapidly at the earth's surface as a lava flow.
    Intrusive; extrusive
  29. True or false: Lava is the molten rock material below the surface.
    false; magma
  30. Minerals "grow" by _________. As a mineral gets larger, it adds on new atoms in the proper geometric arrangement in all directions.
    accertion
  31. Minerals, the basic building rocks, are made of ________. which cannot be split into other substances of different composition.
    elements
  32. If an atom has the same number of protons as electrons, the atom is ________ and has no charge. If an atom has its electron shell filled, it is________.
    neutral, negatively charge

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