Skeletal system including the appendicular skeleton.
(shoulder) attaches upper extremity(arm) to axial skeleton(trunk); 2 bones: ant. clavicle and post. scapula
privides major attachment of the upper extremity to axial skele. Triangular; posterior surafce separted into supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by the spine.
Concave to fit posterior surface of the bony thorax
the spine projects laterally and superiorly over the shoulder joint to form this and its lateral most aspect.
Gives attachment to some of the major muscles and ligaments related to shoulder and arm movements.
Articulates with the clavicle anteriorly
head of the humerous articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form this
projects anteriorly and laterally over the scapula, extending over the anterior lip of the glenoid fossa
Also attached to the clavicle by strong ligaments helping to prevent dislocation of the humerous
Slender, doubly curved bone rounded on medial end and flattened laterally.
serves as a strut to hold the scapula in its lateral position. It articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint.
Attachment site for a large portion of pectoral muscles and transmitts forces to the scapula.
Helps to control movements of the scapula
only bony attachment of the pectoral girdle.clavicle articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum.
clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula.
a shallow socket that articulates with the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint in the scapula
long bone in the arm running from shoulder to elbow
articular surfaces at each epiphysis
Proximal is the head
Trochlea of the Humerus
the medial articulating surface of the distal humerus
articulates with the ulna
at the elbow, lateral articular surface of the humerus which articulates the radius
with the radius is a long bone that makes up the forearm
in A posish is the bone closest to the body(pinky side)
contains trochlear notch, olecranon, coronoid process, radial notch and styloid process
with ulna, make up the forearm
has a distinctive discoidal head at its proximal end. When the arm is rotated so that the palm turns forward and back, the circular superior surface spins on the capitulum of the humerus.
articulates with ulna by proximal and distal radioulnar jointslower end articulates with the carpal bones
supination and pronation
the forearm is able to let the ulna and radius lie parallel to eachother or cross over eachother, respectively
olecranon of ulna
lies behind the posterior edge of the trochlear notch and locks into the olecranon fossa of the posterior humerus when forearm is fully extended.
bony point where u rest your elbow on the table
olecranon fossa of the humerus
where scapula articulates with the humerus
head of the Ulna
articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius allowing pronation(medial rotation) and supination(lateral rotation)
Coronoid fossa of the Humerus
Superior to the anterior portion of the trochlea, this a small depression, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion of the forearm. It is directly adjacent to the Radial fossia of the Humerus
wrist(but acutally in the base of the hand)- consists of 8 small bones that allow flexion or extension of the wrist, +small degree of abduction and adduction
arranged in 2 rows of 4 bones each and are bound by ligaments that restrict movement between them
carpal bones of the proximal row
starting at lateral(thumb) side, scaphoid(boat), lunate(moon), triquetrum(triangle),
(peashaped)- this is a sesamoid bone- appears around 9-12
Carpal bones of distal row
starting lateral are the trapezium, trapazoid, capitate, and hamate- hamate has hook called hamulus on palmar side
a round nodule or outgrowth found on bones
Humerus has a greater and lesser
Tibia has one too for ligament attachements to the patella
Tuberosity of the ulna
Tuberosity of Radius
ulna-the junction of the antero-inferior surface of the coronoid process with the front of the body is a rough eminence which gives insertion to a part of the Brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached
Radius-Beneath the neck of the radius, on the medial side, is an eminence, the radial tuberosity; its surface is divided into:
-a posterior, rough portion, for the insertion of the tendon of the biceps brachii.
-an anterior, smooth portion, on which a bursa is interposed between the tendon and the bone
bones of the palm- articulate with carpal and proximal phalanges
M I located proximal to base of thumb and M V proximal to base of little finger.
look like extensions of the fingers
proximal end is the BASE
shaft is the BODY
and distal end is the HEAD- heads of metacarpals form knuckles in a fist
bones of the fingers
sing. = phalanx
2 in the POLLEX(thumb) and three in each of the other digits
identified by roman numerals preceded by proximal, middle, distal
ex. Left proximal phallanx IV is where people usually wear wedding rings
each have a base, body, and head
formed by scaphiod and lunate carpal bones in articulation with the radius
2 hip bones and sacrum plus all the ligaments and muscles that line the cavity and form its floor.
the supporting link between the lower extremtities and the vertebral column and protects viscera of pelvic cavity
complete ring composed of 3 bones(2 hip bones and sacrum)
Has ischial tuberosities- where we sit
Where major muscles of the trunk and lower limbs are attached
heavy and massive bones- attached securly to axial skeleton
Ability and function to bear weight of upper body
inferior protuberences of the pelvic girdle
strong bony arch that passes inferiorly from the ilium
Os Coxae(coxal bones)
innominate or hip bones
form the pelvis with the sacrum and coccyx of V column
each is result of three bones fused- ilium, ischium, + pubis
board, heavily winged bone bound by the Illiac crest
superior crest of the hip
Fibrocartilaginous prominence immediately above the gentialia
Gives moderate degree of resilience to the pelvic girdle
Formed by pubic bones of each hip bone fusing anteriorly at the pubic crest
most anterior portion of the os coxa
nearly horizontal and serves as a platform for the urinary bladder
has a superior and inferior RAMUS and a triangular body
The fusion of the RAMI of th PUBIS anteriorly and those of the ischium posteriorly form this
Greater (False) Pelvis
broader pelvis between the flare of the hips
bound laterally by the wings of the ilia and is the lower portion of the abdominal cavity
Lesser (True) Pelvis
bounded above by the pelvic inlet(bony ring) and below by the pelvic outlet(bony, ligamentous ring)
where baby comes down the birth canal
round margin that separates the greater and lesser pelvis
deep, hemispherical lateral socket where the ilium, ischium, and pubis fuse
The HIP socket
From the posterior border of the body of the Ischium there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence
the inferoposterior portion of the hipbone
heavy body marked by a prominent spine
muscle cells shorten substantially when stimulated thus created movement
ability for the muscle cells to stretch without damaging the tissue.
ability to return to its orginal shape after contraction or extension.
the local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels rapidly along the cell and intiates processes that involve contraction
voluntary straited muscle that is usually attached to one or more bones
Exhibits light and dark transverse bands(Straitions) that results from overlapping arrangement of their internal contractile proteins.
Called voluntary because subject to conscious control
muscles not attached to bones. Move automatically- not under conscious control
a skeletal muscle cell that is extrodinary long and thick
Light doesn't pass through, thick bands
Tick microfilaments of muscle fiber
neurtotransmitter stimulates the motor end plate during excitation-contraction coupling in the neuromuscular junction
diffuses across cleft and joins receptors
Has receptors on motor end plate- Acetacholine receptors
removes ACh from the synapse from the receptors on the motor plate, then Ca++ is pumped back into the sarco reticulum and Tripomysium-Triponin complexes cover binding sites back up
Thin myofilaments of sacromeres includes two winded into a helix with myosin-binding sites
layers of flat broad tendons- a sheet of tendon versus a chord of tendon
calcium binding protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Holds calcium in the cisterna of sarco after a muscle contraction( at rest) pumps Ca against the diffusion gradient
striated, involuntary, can be stimulated or inhibited by nervous and endocrine systems found in walls of heart(myocardium) .
Mononuclear like smooth muscles cells
Connective tissue around every cell
holds blood supply to each individual celle
enshealths a muscle fiber and made of reticular fibers and overlies the sarcolemma
layer of dense irregular connective tissue which enshealths the entire muscle
divides them into groups and has tendon attaching to bone
protects muscles from friction with other mucles and bones
converting an electrical stimulus to a mechanical response
action potentional creates a muscular response
-ACh stimulates the motor end plate
-Action Potential crosses sarcolemma, T-tubules, and sarco reticulum
-Ca++ channels in retic open causing Ca++ to bind with TTcomplex and activate ATPase(breaking down ATP
-Cross bridges bind ans swivel creating a contraction
skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue