Anatomy-Exam 2

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Anatomy-Exam 2
2011-10-02 23:24:23
anatomy skeletal system

Skeletal system including the appendicular skeleton.
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  1. pectoral girdle
    (shoulder) attaches upper extremity(arm) to axial skeleton(trunk); 2 bones: ant. clavicle and post. scapula
  2. scapula
    • privides major attachment of the upper extremity to axial skele. Triangular; posterior surafce separted into supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by the spine.
    • Concave to fit posterior surface of the bony thorax
  3. Acromion
    • the spine projects laterally and superiorly over the shoulder joint to form this and its lateral most aspect.
    • Gives attachment to some of the major muscles and ligaments related to shoulder and arm movements.
    • Articulates with the clavicle anteriorly
  4. Shoulder joint
    head of the humerous articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form this
  5. Coracoid Process
    • projects anteriorly and laterally over the scapula, extending over the anterior lip of the glenoid fossa
    • Also attached to the clavicle by strong ligaments helping to prevent dislocation of the humerous
  6. Clavicle
    • Slender, doubly curved bone rounded on medial end and flattened laterally.
    • serves as a strut to hold the scapula in its lateral position. It articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint.
    • Attachment site for a large portion of pectoral muscles and transmitts forces to the scapula.
    • Helps to control movements of the scapula
  7. Sternoclavicular Joint
    only bony attachment of the pectoral girdle.clavicle articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum.
  8. Acromioclavicular Joint
    clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula.
  9. Glenoid Fossa
    a shallow socket that articulates with the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint in the scapula
  10. Humerus
    • long bone in the arm running from shoulder to elbow
    • articular surfaces at each epiphysis
    • Proximal is the head
  11. Trochlea of the Humerus
    • the medial articulating surface of the distal humerus
    • articulates with the ulna
  12. Capitulum
    at the elbow, lateral articular surface of the humerus which articulates the radius
  13. Ulna
    • with the radius is a long bone that makes up the forearm
    • in A posish is the bone closest to the body(pinky side)
    • contains trochlear notch, olecranon, coronoid process, radial notch and styloid process
  14. Radius
    • with ulna, make up the forearm
    • has a distinctive discoidal head at its proximal end. When the arm is rotated so that the palm turns forward and back, the circular superior surface spins on the capitulum of the humerus.
    • articulates with ulna by proximal and distal radioulnar joints
    • lower end articulates with the carpal bones
  15. supination and pronation
    the forearm is able to let the ulna and radius lie parallel to eachother or cross over eachother, respectively
  16. olecranon of ulna
    • lies behind the posterior edge of the trochlear notch and locks into the olecranon fossa of the posterior humerus when forearm is fully extended.
    • bony point where u rest your elbow on the table
  17. olecranon fossa of the humerus
  18. Glenohumeral Joint
    where scapula articulates with the humerus
  19. head of the Ulna
    articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius allowing pronation(medial rotation) and supination(lateral rotation)
  20. Coronoid fossa of the Humerus
    Superior to the anterior portion of the trochlea, this a small depression, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion of the forearm. It is directly adjacent to the Radial fossia of the Humerus
  21. Carpus(carpal bones)
    • wrist(but acutally in the base of the hand)- consists of 8 small bones that allow flexion or extension of the wrist, +small degree of abduction and adduction
    • arranged in 2 rows of 4 bones each and are bound by ligaments that restrict movement between them
  22. carpal bones of the proximal row
    • starting at lateral(thumb) side, scaphoid(boat), lunate(moon), triquetrum(triangle),
    • pisiform(peashaped)- this is a sesamoid bone- appears around 9-12
  23. Carpal bones of distal row
    starting lateral are the trapezium, trapazoid, capitate, and hamate- hamate has hook called hamulus on palmar side
  24. Tubercle
    • a round nodule or outgrowth found on bones
    • Humerus has a greater and lesser
    • Tibia has one too for ligament attachements to the patella
  25. Tuberosity of the ulna
    Tuberosity of Radius
    • ulna-the junction of the antero-inferior surface of the coronoid process with the front of the body is a rough eminence which gives insertion to a part of the Brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached
    • Radius-Beneath the neck of the radius, on the medial side, is an eminence, the radial tuberosity; its surface is divided into:
    • -a posterior, rough portion, for the insertion of the tendon of the biceps brachii.
    • -an anterior, smooth portion, on which a bursa is interposed between the tendon and the bone
  26. Metacarpals
    • bones of the palm- articulate with carpal and proximal phalanges
    • M I located proximal to base of thumb and M V proximal to base of little finger.
    • look like extensions of the fingers
    • proximal end is the BASE
    • shaft is the BODY
    • and distal end is the HEAD- heads of metacarpals form knuckles in a fist
  27. Proximal Phalanges
    • bones of the fingers
    • sing. = phalanx
    • 2 in the POLLEX(thumb) and three in each of the other digits
    • identified by roman numerals preceded by proximal, middle, distal
    • ex. Left proximal phallanx IV is where people usually wear wedding rings
    • each have a base, body, and head
  28. Radiocarpal joint
    formed by scaphiod and lunate carpal bones in articulation with the radius
  29. Pelvis
    2 hip bones and sacrum plus all the ligaments and muscles that line the cavity and form its floor.
  30. Pelvic Girdle
    • the supporting link between the lower extremtities and the vertebral column and protects viscera of pelvic cavity
    • complete ring composed of 3 bones(2 hip bones and sacrum)
    • Has ischial tuberosities- where we sit
    • Where major muscles of the trunk and lower limbs are attached
    • heavy and massive bones- attached securly to axial skeleton
    • Ability and function to bear weight of upper body
  31. Ischial tuberosities
    • inferior protuberences of the pelvic girdle
    • strong bony arch that passes inferiorly from the ilium
  32. Os Coxae(coxal bones)
    • innominate or hip bones
    • form the pelvis with the sacrum and coccyx of V column
    • each is result of three bones fused- ilium, ischium, + pubis
  33. Illium
    board, heavily winged bone bound by the Illiac crest
  34. Illiac Crest
    superior crest of the hip
  35. Pubic Symphysis
    • Fibrocartilaginous prominence immediately above the gentialia
    • Gives moderate degree of resilience to the pelvic girdle
    • Formed by pubic bones of each hip bone fusing anteriorly at the pubic crest
  36. Pubis
    • most anterior portion of the os coxa
    • (pubic bone)
    • nearly horizontal and serves as a platform for the urinary bladder
    • has a superior and inferior RAMUS and a triangular body
  37. Obturator foramen
    The fusion of the RAMI of th PUBIS anteriorly and those of the ischium posteriorly form this
  38. Greater (False) Pelvis
    • broader pelvis between the flare of the hips
    • bound laterally by the wings of the ilia and is the lower portion of the abdominal cavity
  39. Lesser (True) Pelvis
    • narrower
    • bounded above by the pelvic inlet(bony ring) and below by the pelvic outlet(bony, ligamentous ring)
    • where baby comes down the birth canal
  40. Pelvic Brim
    round margin that separates the greater and lesser pelvis
  41. Acetabulum
    • deep, hemispherical lateral socket where the ilium, ischium, and pubis fuse
    • The HIP socket
  42. Ischial spine
    From the posterior border of the body of the Ischium there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence
  43. Ischium
    • the inferoposterior portion of the hipbone
    • heavy body marked by a prominent spine
  44. Contractility
    muscle cells shorten substantially when stimulated thus created movement
  45. Extensibility
    ability for the muscle cells to stretch without damaging the tissue.
  46. Elasticity
    ability to return to its orginal shape after contraction or extension.
  47. conductivity
    the local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels rapidly along the cell and intiates processes that involve contraction
  48. Skeletal muscle
    • voluntary straited muscle that is usually attached to one or more bones
    • Exhibits light and dark transverse bands(Straitions) that results from overlapping arrangement of their internal contractile proteins.
    • Called voluntary because subject to conscious control
  49. involuntary muscle
    muscles not attached to bones. Move automatically- not under conscious control
  50. Muscle fiber(Myocyte)
    a skeletal muscle cell that is extrodinary long and thick
  51. A Band
    • Anisotopic
    • Light doesn't pass through, thick bands
    • Tick microfilaments of muscle fiber
  52. Acetacholine(ACh)
    • neurtotransmitter stimulates the motor end plate during excitation-contraction coupling in the neuromuscular junction
    • diffuses across cleft and joins receptors
    • Has receptors on motor end plate- Acetacholine receptors
  53. Acetacholinesterase
    removes ACh from the synapse from the receptors on the motor plate, then Ca++ is pumped back into the sarco reticulum and Tripomysium-Triponin complexes cover binding sites back up
  54. Actin
    Thin myofilaments of sacromeres includes two winded into a helix with myosin-binding sites
  55. Aponeurosis
    layers of flat broad tendons- a sheet of tendon versus a chord of tendon
  56. Calsequestrin
    • calcium binding protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Holds calcium in the cisterna of sarco after a muscle contraction( at rest) pumps Ca against the diffusion gradient
  57. Cardiac Muscle
    • striated, involuntary, can be stimulated or inhibited by nervous and endocrine systems found in walls of heart(myocardium) .
    • Mononuclear like smooth muscles cells
  58. Endomysium
    • Connective tissue around every cell
    • holds blood supply to each individual celle
    • enshealths a muscle fiber and made of reticular fibers and overlies the sarcolemma
  59. Epimysium
    • layer of dense irregular connective tissue which enshealths the entire muscle
    • divides them into groups and has tendon attaching to bone
    • protects muscles from friction with other mucles and bones
  60. Excitation-contraction Coupling
    • converting an electrical stimulus to a mechanical response
    • action potentional creates a muscular response
    • -ACh stimulates the motor end plate
    • -Action Potential crosses sarcolemma, T-tubules, and sarco reticulum
    • -Ca++ channels in retic open causing Ca++ to bind with TTcomplex and activate ATPase(breaking down ATP
    • -Cross bridges bind ans swivel creating a contraction
  61. Fasicle
    skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue
  62. I Band
    • Thin myofilaments
    • Isotropic
    • Light passes through
  63. Innervation