Effects of Emotion on Decision-making

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  1. the emotion the guy in the video felt was
  2. Variety of judgement and choice measures
    • Risk taking: Financial gambles (the example of gambling on slide)
    • Risk estimation: Terrorism
    • Social judgments: Morality
  3. Integral vs. incidental emotions
    • Integral:
    • Emotion is elicited, it is apart of the situation
    • related to the current decision

    • Incidental:
    • emotion is unrelated to the current decision
    • carryover effects
  4. carryover effects
    emotion experience in one situation can influence another situation that is entirely unrelated (logically speaking this should not happen)
  5. example of integral
    See the bear- what are you going to do?
  6. Example of incidental
    see the bear and then asked to do an unrelated task and see if you will be more likely to gamble
  7. past work took a valence-based approach
    • investigated the effects of general positive and negative affect
    • think mood
  8. Schwarz & Clore (1983) – Early empirical work
    • the influence of general positive and negative moods on judgement
    • subjects: 84 participants
    • IV: weather (rainy vs sunny day)
    • saliency of weather (mood)
    • did not mention the weather
    • passing small talk (hi blah blah, how is the weather there?)
    • primary focus of experiment (saying: doing an experiment on how weather influences their mood)
    • DV: Perceived quality of life
  9. Schwarz & Clore Results
    • incidental example
    • sunny day ppl rated their life consistently better
    • for bad mood ppl there was an effect
    • ppl were less happy and satisfying when the weather was not mentioned
    • when the weather was mentioned that bad mood went away

    • theory: we try to find a reason to why we are in a bad mood/unsatisfying life
    • use momentary affective states as information in making judgments
    • people in unpleasant states search for and use information to explain their state
  10. affect as information
    • people consult momentary moods to make judgments
    • even if mood is irrelevant to judgment (misattribution)
    • effect disappears when given a reason for negative mood
  11. Recent empirical work
    • emotions are lenses, how we see the world is going to be different depending on our emotional state
    • interpretation corresponds to particular emotional states
    • influence subsequent decisions
    • choose to see what you wanted to see and interpret it the way you wanted to see

    • Explanatory models
    • functional accounts
    • appraisal theory
  12. functional accounts
    • emotions prepare to achieved-emotion specific goal
    • focus on goals
  13. appraisal theory
    • NOT an opposition to functional approach
    • each emotion has different sets of appraisals
  14. effects of embarrassment and disgust
    • embarrassment:
    • appeasement
    • desire to move toward

    • disgust:
    • refection system
    • moving away
  15. moral judgements on embarrassment and disgust
    • embarrassment:
    • less harsh moral judgments
    • wanting to stay part of the group
    • decreases risk taking

    • disgust:
    • harsher moral judgments
  16. Lerner, Small and Lowenstein (2004)
    • The influence of disgust and sadness on economic decisions
    • subjects – 199 ppts
    • iv – emotion (fear vs anger vs neutral)
    • dv – buying and selling prices
  17. Lerner, Small, and Lowenstein results
    • disgust: decrease in buying and lower selling prices
    • sadness: think of buying and selling prices as willingness to buy or sell
    • think of buying and selling prices as willingness to buy or sell
  18. endowment effect
    things that you possess are more valuable to you
  19. Lerner & Keltner (2000)
    • the effect of fear and anger on risk perception
    • subjects – 97 ppts
    • IV – emotion (fear vs. risk)
    • DV – risk perception (how many ppl would die from a car accident, lighting, etc)
  20. Lerner and Keltner results
    • fear = pessimistic risk estimates (high risk perception)
    • anger = optimistic risk estimates (low risk perception)
  21. Summary of recent studies
    • specific emotions approach
    • emotions act as perceptual lenses: emotion congruent perception, perception infuences judgment and decision
    • specific emotions have distinct effects on decision-making

    • conclusion and future directions in this area of study
    • compare different emotions on same dependent measures
    • robust model
    • cross-cultural studies
  22. conclusion and future directions in this area of study
    • compare different emotions on same dependent measures
    • robust model
    • cross-cultural studies
Card Set
Effects of Emotion on Decision-making
Psyc 153 Final
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