Pharm L14-15, T2 autonomics.txt

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Pharm L14-15, T2 autonomics.txt
2011-10-11 16:52:21
Pharm L14 15 T2 autonomics

Pharm L14-15, T2 autonomics
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  1. What areas receive Ach as a neurotransmitter?
    • 1) All parasympathetics
    • 2) Adrenal Medulla
    • 3) Sympathetic Sweat glands
    • 4) Somatic skeletal muscle
  2. Ach role in Enteric Nervous system?
    Increase peristalsis and acid secretion
  3. Role of NE and Epi in the enteric nervous system?
    Inhibit peristalsis and acid secretion
  4. What is the major excitatory NT of the enteric nervous system?
    Serotonin (5HT)
  5. What is the role of Substance P and ATP in the enteric nervous sytstem?
    Contribute to excitation
  6. Role of NO, VIP and ATP in the Enteric nervous system?
  7. What is the role of the myenteric and Auerbach's plexus in the Enteric Nervous system?
    • Myenteric: contraction & relaxation
    • Auerbach's: secretion, absorption & BF
  8. 5 Steps of Neurotransmitter release
    • 1) Synthesis
    • 2) Storage: in vesicles
    • 3) Release: due to increased calcium
    • 4) Receptor activation: Pre or Post-synaptic
    • 5) Termination of action: Enzyme destruction or reuptake
  9. Role of Vesamicol?
    Block uptake of Ach into the vesicle
  10. Role of Botulinum Toxin?
    Inhibit release of Ach from presynaptic cleft vesicle
  11. Role of AchE?
    Break down Ach after function is complete back to cholien and acetate
  12. Role of Hemicholinium?
    Block reuptake of Choline
  13. What is the rate limiting step in the production of NE?
    Conversion of Tyrosine to L-dopa using Tyrosine hydroxylase
  14. Role of Metyrosine?
    Stop hydroxylation of tyrosine to L-dopa
  15. What activates Tyrosine hydroxylase activity?
    Increased sympathetic activity
  16. Role of Reserpine?
    Block uptake of Dopamine, NE or Epi into vesicles
  17. Role of Antidepressants and Cocaine on NE?
    Block reuptake by NET
  18. Role of Guanethidine in adrenergic transmission?
    Inhibits release of NE
  19. Role of Amphetamines and Tyramine for adrenergic transmission?
    Increase release of NE
  20. Role of MAO?
    Break down NE in nerve terminal
  21. Role of COMT?
    Break down circulating NE
  22. What is the role of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-mandelic acid (VMA) ?
    24-hr uring sample used to measure NE and Epi metabolism
  23. Name the three common ion channels
    Na, Ca & K
  24. What is cleaved to activate Adenylyl Cyclase pathway?
    GDP to GTP
  25. Roles of IP3 and DAG from the Gq pathway?
    • IP3: release stored calcium
    • DAG: activate PKC
  26. Role of Heteroreceptors:
    Presynaptic Alpha2 receptor
    Presynaptic Beta receptors
    Presynaptic M2 receptors
    • Presynaptic Alpha2 receptor: inhibit NE release
    • Presynaptic Beta receptors: increase NE release
    • Presynaptic M2 receptors: inhibit NE release
  27. Four organs not affected by Parasympathetic system?
    • Adrenal medulla
    • Liver
    • Sweat glands
    • Blood vessels
  28. What is the main role of parasympathetics?
    • Rest and Digest:
    • Heart slows
    • secret gastric acid
    • salivate
    • GI motor activity
    • relax sphintors
    • constrict pupil
    • constrict ciliary muscles
    • decrease intraocular pressure
    • Bronchioles constrict
    • Erection
    • contract uterus
  29. What is the main role of sympathetics?
    • Fight or flight:
    • constrict sphinctor
    • dilate pupil
    • Bronchioles dilate
    • relax ciliary muscles
    • increase HR
    • vasoconstric arterioles
    • vasodilate arteries to
    • Increase Renin
    • relax GI
    • Relax & contract Uterus
  30. How does the baroreceptor system function for high HR?
    • 1) High BP = afferent impulse to VMC
    • 2) Decrease SNS impulse = Vasodilation of arterioles
    • 3) Increase PNS impulse via Vagus N = decreased HR via M2
  31. How does the baroreceptor system function for low BP?
    • 1) NE stimulates alpah receptors
    • 2) vasoconstriction of arterioles - alpha receptors
    • 3) increased heart rate - B1 receptors
    • 4) HR increases
  32. What is the role of Ach on HR and BP?
    Will cause both to drop
  33. Role of Ach in the bronchioles
  34. Role of isoproterenol?
    increase HR if there is an extreme drop
  35. What receptors contract radial muscles, what Autonomic system?
    • Alpha receptors
    • SNS
  36. Does dilation cause a huge effect on accomodation of lens shape?
    No, only PNS activation via M3 receptors that constrict via radial muscles
  37. Role of Beta receptors in eye?
    • 1) increase aqueous humor
    • 2) increase intraocular pressure
    • 3) relax ciliary muscles