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- frequently recurring sequence of action in a genre, e.g., rags-to-riches,
- boy-meets-girl, the eternal triangle, the innocent proves himself or herself.
- a fictional character based on a common literary or social stereotype.
- Stock characters rely heavily on cultural types or names for their personality, manner of speech, and other characteristics.
- In their most general form, stock characters are related to literary archetypes, but they are often more narrowly defined.
- Stock characters are a key component of genre fiction, providing relationships and interactions that people familiar with the genre will recognize immediately.
- Stock characters make easy targets for parody, which will likely exaggerate any stereotypes associated with these characters.
- Language that speaks of something that is intangible.
- For example, any word that ends in "ism," is abstract. Racism, classism, sexism.
- Abstract language is fluid and forever changing
- (1) a statement which has two or more possible meanings;
- (2) a statement whose
- meaning is unclear.
- Depending on the circumstances, ambiguity can be negative,
- leading to confusion or even disaster (the ambiguous wording of a general's note
- led to the deadly charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimean War).
- On the other
- hand, writers often use it to achieve special effects, for instance, to reflect
- the complexity of an issue or to indicate the difficulty, perhaps the
- impossibility, of determining truth.
- identifies things perceived through the senses (touch, smell, sight, hearing,
- and taste), such as soft, stench, red, loud, or bitter.
- the emotions, values, or images associated with a word. The intensity of
- emotions or the power of the values and images associated with a word varies.
- Words connected with religion, politics, and sex tend to have the strongest
- feelings and images associated with them.
- the literal meaning of a word; there are no emotions, values, or images
- associated with denotative meaning. Scientific and mathematical language carries
- few, if any emotional or connotative meanings.
any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality: “Richard the Lion-Hearted” is an epithet of Richard I.
- a characterizing word or phrase firmly associated with a person or thing and often used in place of an actual name, title, or the like, as “man's best friend” for “dog.”
- a word, phrase, or expression used invectively as a term of abuse or contempt, to express hostility, etc.
- a substitution for an expression that might offend or suggest something unpleasant to the receiver, using instead an agreeable or less offensive expression, or to make it less troublesome for the speaker.
- Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others are created to mislead
- character speaks to audience
- not heard by other characters on stage
single speaker saying something to silent audience
the act of talking to oneself
a figure of speech where the speaker speaks directly to something nonhuman
an elaborate, usualy intellectually ingenious poetic comparison/image, such as an analogy/metaphor i which, say a beloved is compared to a ship, the comparison may be brief or extended.
consists of the similarities b/w tenor and vehicle
- the target, room = pigsty,
- tenor = room
- source, room = pigsty
- vehical = pigsty
- (5) 3-line stanzas
- 1st line of 1st stanza repeated at last line of 3ed/5th stanzas
- those 2 refrain lines follow to become the second to last and last lines of the poem
- rhyme scheme = aba, rhymes repeated according to the refrains
- a literary device in which virtue is ultimately rewarded or vice punished,
- often in modern literature by an ironic twist of fate intimately related to the character's own conduct.
- Carpe diem is a phrase from a Latin poem by Horace that has become an aphorism.
- It is popularly translated as "Seize the day".
- Carpe literally means "to pick, pluck, pluck off, cull, crop, gather", but Ovid used the word in the sense of, "To enjoy, seize, use, make use of".
comedy of manners
- a genre of play/television/film which satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class,
- often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young.
- The plot of the comedy, often concerned with scandal, is generally less important than its witty dialogue
a single speaker speaking to a silent audience
Lyric poetry is a genre of poetry that expresses personal and emotional feelings
- a type of lyrical verse.
- A classic ode is structured in three major parts: the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode.
- Different forms such as the homostrophic ode and the irregular ode also exist.
- an elaborately structured poem praising/glorifying an event/individual, describing nature intellectually as well as emotionally.
- playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humour.
- It directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly, rather than evil.
- Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.
- is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. Juvenalian satire addresses social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule.
- This form is often pessimistic, characterized by irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective, with less emphasis on humour.
- Strongly polarized political satire is often Juvenalian.
- iambic line w/ ten stresses and 5 beats
- traditionally associated w/ dramatic speech and epic poetry
- the lack of rhyme makes enjambment more possible and often more effective
- it is often identified as the poetic form closest to human speech
- short narriative
- usually in 4-line stanzas w/ distinctie and memorable meter
- abab or abcb rhyme scheme
- the subject matter is distinctive, almost always ab sotries of lost love, supernatural, recent events
- uses popular and local speech and dialogue to vividly convey the story
- rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter
- masculine rhyme
- two line units of verse that do not extend their sense beyond the line's end.
- Furthermore, the lines are usually rhymed.
- When the lines are in iambic pentameter, they are referred to as heroic verse.
a brief, clever, and usually memorable statement
- sanzas with no regular number of lines or groups of lines that make up units of sense.
- They are usually separated by blank lines.
- Verse paragraphs are frequently used in blank verse and in free verse.
end stop line
- the syntactic unit (phrase, clause, or sentence) corresponds in length to the line.
- Its opposite is enjambment, where the sense runs on into the next line.
Stream-of-consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow.
a rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis
A rhetorical term for an abrupt shift from a serious or noble tone to a less exalted one--often for comic effect. Adjective: anticlimactic.
A rhetorical term for the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses. Plural: antitheses. Adjective: antithetical.
- Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect.
- The technique is common in
- epic literature,
- where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes,
- aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and
- The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious
- genealogies ("and so-and-so begat so-and-so," or "x, son of y, son of z" etc.)
- for famous individuals.
Literary device incongruity is when a writer uses a literary device such as a metaphor, simile, or any other in a way that it should not have been used or where meaning is lost.
a line repeated in a changed context or with minor changes in the repeated part
- the shift or point of dramatic change. The term is most frequently used in
- discussion of sonnet form
full / perfect / true rhyme
- Exact rhyme or perfect rhyme is rhyming two words in which both the consonant
- sounds and vowel sounds match to create a rhyme.
- The term "exact" is sometimes
- used more specifically to refer to two homophones that are spelled dissimilarly
- but pronounced identically at the end of lines.
- A trisyllabic rhyme involving three separate syllables to create the rhyme in
- each word. For instance, grinding cares is a triple
- rhyme with winding stairs. Fearfully is a triple rhyme
- with tearfully.
- Attempting to group words together harmoniously, so that the consonants permit
- an easy and pleasing flow of sound when spoken,
- opposite of cacophony
- In linguistics, any hissing sound made with a groove down the center of the
- refers to a postscript added to the end of a prose writing or a short verse
- stanza (often using different meter and rhyme) attached to the conclusion of a
- The voices or speakers used by authors when they seemingly speak for themselves
- in a book.
- in poetry, poetic speaker
- a metrical foot used in formal poetry. It consists of two unaccented, short syllables. It is also known as a dibrach.
- Tennyson used pyrrhics and spondees quite frequently,
- for example, in In Memoriam: "When the blood creeps and the nerves prick." "When the" and "and the" in the second line may be considered as pyrrhics (also analyzable as ionic meter).
- a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as determined by syllable weight in classical meters, or two stressed syllables, as determined by stress in modern meters.
- This makes it unique in English verse as all other feet (excepting molossus, which has three stressed syllables, and dispondee, which has four stressed syllables) contain at least one unstressed syllable.
a metrical foot used in formal poetry consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one.
the act of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse.