a substitution for an expression that might offend or suggest something unpleasant to the receiver, using instead an agreeable or less offensive expression, or to make it less troublesome for the speaker.
Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others are created to mislead
character speaks to audience
not heard by other characters on stage
single speaker saying something to silent audience
the act of talking to oneself
a figure of speech where the speaker speaks directly to something nonhuman
an elaborate, usualy intellectually ingenious poetic comparison/image, such as an analogy/metaphor i which, say a beloved is compared to a ship, the comparison may be brief or extended.
consists of the similarities b/w tenor and vehicle
the target, room = pigsty,
tenor = room
source, room = pigsty
vehical = pigsty
(5) 3-line stanzas
1st line of 1st stanza repeated at last line of 3ed/5th stanzas
those 2 refrain lines follow to become the second to last and last lines of the poem
rhyme scheme = aba, rhymes repeated according to the refrains
sense of taste
sense of smell
a literary device in which virtue is ultimately rewarded or vicepunished,
often in modern literature by an ironic twist of fate intimately related to the character's own conduct.
Carpe diem is a phrase from a Latin poem by Horace that has become an aphorism.
It is popularly translated as "Seize the day".
Carpe literally means "to pick, pluck, pluck off, cull, crop, gather", but Ovid used the word in the sense of, "To enjoy, seize, use, make use of".
comedy of manners
a genre of play/television/film which satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class,
often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young.
The plot of the comedy, often concerned with scandal, is generally less important than its witty dialogue
a single speaker speaking to a silent audience
Lyric poetry is a genre of poetry that expresses personal and emotional feelings
a type of lyrical verse.
A classic ode is structured in three major parts: the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode.
Different forms such as the homostrophic ode and the irregular ode also exist.
an elaborately structured poem praising/glorifying an event/individual, describing nature intellectually as well as emotionally.
playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humour.
It directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly, rather than evil.
Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.
is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. Juvenalian satire addresses social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule.
This form is often pessimistic, characterized by irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective, with less emphasis on humour.
Strongly polarized political satire is often Juvenalian.
iambic line w/ ten stresses and 5 beats
traditionally associated w/ dramatic speech and epic poetry
the lack of rhyme makes enjambment more possible and often more effective
it is often identified as the poetic form closest to human speech
usually in 4-line stanzas w/ distinctie and memorable meter
abab or abcb rhyme scheme
the subject matter is distinctive, almost always ab sotries of lost love, supernatural, recent events
uses popular and local speech and dialogue to vividly convey the story
rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter
two line units of verse that do not extend their sense beyond the line's end.
Furthermore, the lines are usually rhymed.
When the lines are in iambic pentameter, they are referred to as heroic verse.
a brief, clever, and usually memorable statement
sanzas with no regular number of lines or groups of lines that make up units of sense.
They are usually separated by blank lines.
Verse paragraphs are frequently used in blank verse and in free verse.
end stop line
the syntactic unit (phrase, clause, or sentence) corresponds in length to the line.
Its opposite is enjambment, where the sense runs on into the next line.
Stream-of-consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow.
a rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis
A rhetorical term for an abrupt shift from a serious or noble tone to a less exalted one--often for comic effect. Adjective: anticlimactic.
A rhetorical term for the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses. Plural: antitheses. Adjective: antithetical.
Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect.
The technique is common in
where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes,
aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious
genealogies ("and so-and-so begat so-and-so," or "x, son of y, son of z" etc.)
for famous individuals.
Literary device incongruity is when a writer uses a literary device such as a metaphor, simile, or any other in a way that it should not have been used or where meaning is lost.
a line repeated in a changed context or with minor changes in the repeated part
the shift or point of dramatic change. The term is most frequently used in
discussion of sonnet form
full / perfect / true rhyme
Exact rhyme or perfect rhyme is rhyming two words in which both the consonant
sounds and vowel sounds match to create a rhyme.
The term "exact" is sometimes
used more specifically to refer to two homophones that are spelled dissimilarly
but pronounced identically at the end of lines.
A trisyllabic rhyme involving three separate syllables to create the rhyme in
each word. For instance, grinding cares is a triple
rhyme with winding stairs. Fearfully is a triple rhyme
Attempting to group words together harmoniously, so that the consonants permit
an easy and pleasing flow of sound when spoken,
opposite of cacophony
In linguistics, any hissing sound made with a groove down the center of the
refers to a postscript added to the end of a prose writing or a short verse
stanza (often using different meter and rhyme) attached to the conclusion of a
The voices or speakers used by authors when they seemingly speak for themselves
in a book.
in poetry, poetic speaker
a metrical foot used in formal poetry. It consists of two unaccented, short syllables. It is also known as a dibrach.
Tennyson used pyrrhics and spondees quite frequently,
for example, in In Memoriam: "When the bloodcreeps and the nervesprick." "When the" and "and the" in the second line may be considered as pyrrhics (also analyzable as ionic meter).
a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as determined by syllable weight in classical meters, or two stressed syllables, as determined by stress in modern meters.
This makes it unique in English verse as all other feet (excepting molossus, which has three stressed syllables, and dispondee, which has four stressed syllables) contain at least one unstressed syllable.
a metrical foot used in formal poetry consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one.
the act of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse.