quiz 1.txt

Card Set Information

quiz 1.txt
2011-09-20 21:10:55

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  1. Arraignment �
    strictly, the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case in which the identity of the defendant is established, the defendant is informed of the charge and of his rights, and the defendant is required to enter a plea.
  2. Booking �
    the law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority
  3. Trial
    in criminal proceedings, the examination in court of the issues of fact and relevant law in a case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the defendants
  4. Preliminary hearing
    A proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: (1) whether a crime was commited, (2) whether the crime occured within territorial uristdiction of the court, and (3) whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime
  5. Probation
    A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended. Also, the conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to a convicted offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions of behavior
  6. Parole
    The status of a convicted offender who has been conditionally released from prison by a paroling authority before the expiration of his or her sentence, is placed under the supervision of a parole agency, and is required to observe the conditions of parole
  7. Day Reporting
    A place where select offenders must report while on probation or parole and where the offender receives an increased intensity of services.
  8. Bail
    The money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody
  9. CRJ Model
    The aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform CRJ functions. The basic divisions of the operational aspects of CRJ are law enforcement, courts, and corrections
  10. Consensus Model
    A CRJ perspective that assumes that the system's components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice
  11. Conflict Model
    A CRJ perspective that assumes that the system's components function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a product of conflicts among agencies within the system than it is the result of cooperation among component agencies
  12. Crime-control model
    A CRJ perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and convicition of criminal offenders
  13. Due-Process Model
    A CRJ Model perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing. Procedural fairness.
  14. Due Process
    a right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of individual rights. In criminal proceedings, due process of law is generally understood to include the following basic elements: a law creating and defining the offense, an impartial tribunal having jurisdictional authority over the case, accusation in proper form, notice and opportunity to defend, trial according to established procedure, and discharge from all restaints or obligations unless convicted
  15. Individual rights
    The rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution (especially those found in the first 10 amendments to the constitution, known as the Bill of Rights). These rights are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the CRJ system
  16. Social control
    The use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is primary concern of social groups and communities, and it is their interest in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statues
  17. Social Justice
    An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong
  18. Justice
    The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity
  19. Miranda vs Arizona
    a landmark 5�4 decision of the United States Supreme Court. The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. This had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.
  20. Concurrent sentence
    one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and servedd at the same time. Also, a new sentence for a new convition, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, served at the same time as the previous sentence
  21. Consecutive sentence
    One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentence. Also, a new sentece for a new conviciton, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, which is added to the previous sentence, thus increasing the maximum time the offender may be confined or under supervision
  22. Suspended sentence
    The court decision to delay imposing or executing a penalty for a specified or unspecified period. also, a court disposition of a convicted person pronouncing a penalty of a fine or a committment to confinement but unconditionally discharging the defendant or holding execution of the penalty in abeyance upon good behavior.
  23. trial advocates
    Mock trial. A simulated trial-level proceeding conducted by students to understand trial rules and processes. Usually tried before a mock jury, these proceedings are different from Moot Court proceedings, which simulate appellate arguments.
  24. Due process advocates
    Recognize the individual rights of the criminal defendant. Police required to respect the rights of suspects. Prosecutors and judges must recognize during trial.
  25. Individual rights advocate
    One who seeks to protect personal frredoms within the process of CRJ
  26. Public-Order Advocates
    One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights
  27. Sixth Amendment
    right to a speedy trial, public trial, impartial jury, notice of accusation, confrontation, compulsory process, counsel, and self representation
  28. Corrections stage of the CRJ system
    Correctional agencies carryout sentences imposed by the courts, provide safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders, protect the community, rehabilitate, reform, and reintegrate convicted offenders back inot the community, and respect the legal and human rights of the convicted