A&P Test 2

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Author:
ckgurl08
ID:
10319
Filename:
A&P Test 2
Updated:
2010-03-13 22:07:36
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A&P
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Description:
endocrine system
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  1. 3 groups of corticosteroids
    • mineralocorticoids
    • glucocorticoids
    • gonadocorticoids
  2. Mineralcorticoid example
    aldosterone
  3. Glucocorticoid example
    cortisol
  4. Gonadocorticoid example
    testosterone
  5. Where are steroid hormones/corticosteroids produced?
    adrenal cortex
  6. Catecholamine example
    norepinephrine
  7. Androgen example
    testosterone
  8. Steroid example
    testosterone
  9. Corticosteroid example
    cortisol
  10. 3 Functional regions of cells
    • zona glomerulosa
    • zona fasciculata
    • zona reticularis
  11. 3 types of pancreatic islets of langerhans
    • alpha cells
    • beta cells
    • delta cells
  12. When sodium is down and potassium is up
    • urine output increases
    • blood pressure decreased
    • ectracellular fluid decreases
  13. Kidney cells
    juxtaglomerular
  14. What do kidney cells do?
    • detect low blood bolume
    • release the enzyme renin
  15. What does renin do?
    converts angiotensinogen into angiotension 1
  16. What is angiotensinogen?
    a protein in the blood from the liver
  17. What does angiotension 1 do?
    travels in the blood to the lungs
  18. ACE
    angiotensin converting enzyme
  19. What does ACE do?
    converts angiotension 1 into angiotension 2 at the lungs
  20. What does angiotension 2 target?
    • blood vessels
    • adrenal cortex
  21. vasoconstrictor
    increases blood pressure
  22. What does angiotension 2 do?
    • increases blood pressure
    • causes adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
  23. What does aldosterone target?
    • kidneys
    • sweat glands
  24. What does aldosterone cause?
    • sodium resorption
    • potassium loss
  25. What hormones increase blood sugar?
    • cortisol
    • epinephrine
    • glucagon
  26. What hormone decreases blood sugar?
    insulin
  27. Groiter
    • enlarged thyroid
    • hyper or hypo thyroid hormones
  28. Who is more likely to get groiter?
    people who live in mountainous or desert regions where there is a lack of iodine in the drinking water or soil
  29. What are the causes of groiter?
    • idiopathic
    • lack of iodine
    • overactive thyroid
    • underactive thyroid
  30. Graves' disease
    • automimmune disorder in which the blood of the patient contains antibodies that combine with the receptors for TSH
    • hyper thyroid hormones
  31. Cretinism
    • results from failure of the thyroid to develop during intrauterine life or failure of the gland to secrete thyroid hormones
    • hypo thyroid hormones
  32. Myxedema
    • skin becomes yellow, thick, and puffy due to accumulation of mucoprotein in the subcutaneous tissue (mostly women)
    • hypo thyroid hormones
  33. 2 hormones associated with groiter, graves, cretinism, and myxedema
    • T3
    • T4
  34. What does hypo parathormone cause?
    • kidney stones
    • demineralization of bone
  35. What does hyper parathormone cause?
    muscular and nervous disturbance
  36. Cushing's disease
    hyper corticosteroids
  37. Addison's disease
    hypo mineralocorticoids
  38. Virilism
    • androgenic effects in females
    • hyper gonadocorticoids
  39. Gynecomastia
    • development of breasts in men
    • hyper gonadocorticoids
  40. Seasonal Affective Disorder
    hyper melatonin
  41. Insomnia
    hypo melatonin
  42. What disorders are associated with the thyroid gland?
    • goiter
    • grave's disease
    • cretinism
    • myxedema
  43. What disorders are associated with the parathyroid gland?
    • kidney stones
    • demineralization of bone
    • muscular and nervous disturbances
  44. What disorders are associated with the adrenal cortex?
    • cushing's disease
    • addison's disease
    • virilism
    • gynecomastia
  45. What disorders are associated with the pineal gland?
    • SAD
    • insomnia
  46. What disorder is associated with the pancreas?
    diabetes mellitus type 1
  47. TGB
    • thyroglobulin
    • aids in the storage of T3 and T4
  48. TBG
    • thyroid binding protein
    • aids in the transport of T3 and T4
  49. ECF
    extracellular fluid
  50. BMR
    basal metabolic rate
  51. T4
    • tetraiodothyronine
    • aka thyroxine
  52. T3
    triiodothyronine
  53. CT
    calcitonin
  54. PTH
    parathormone
  55. NE
    • norepinephrine
    • aka noradrenaline
  56. How are T3 and T4 made?
    iodine (sodium or potassium iodide) and tyrosine are necessary for synethesis
  57. What are the actions of T3 and T4?
    • increases BMR
    • exerts an anabolic action on protein metabolism during growth
    • helps with normal development of the CNS
    • accelerates all phases of glucose metabolism
    • increases mobilization and oxidation of fatty acids and the catabolism of cholesterol
  58. Production gland of T3 and T4
    thyroid gland
  59. T3 and T4 cell type
    follicle cell
  60. Target of T3 and T4
    • body cells
    • liver
  61. Actions of T3 and T4
    increase BMR development of CNS
  62. CT production gland
    thyroid gland
  63. CT cell type
    c-cells/parafollicular cells
  64. Target of CT
    osteoblasts
  65. Action of CT
    decreases blood calcium levels
  66. PTH production gland
    parathyroid gland
  67. PTH cell type
    cheif cells
  68. Target of PTH
    • osteoclasts
    • kidneys
  69. Actions of PTH
    • increases blood calcium
    • increases resorption of calcium at kidneys
    • activates vitamin D
  70. NO hormone production gland
    parathyroid
  71. NO hormone cell type
    oxyphil cells
  72. Action of NO hormone
    support
  73. Aldosterone production gland
    adrenal cortex
  74. Aldosterone cell type
    zona glomerulosa
  75. Targets of aldosterone
    • kidneys
    • sweat glands
    • salivary glands
  76. Action of aldosterone
    increases retention of sodium
  77. Cortisol aka
    hydrocortisone
  78. Cortisol production gland
    adrenal cortex
  79. Cortisol cell type
    zona fasciculata
  80. Targets of cortisol
    • liver
    • mast cells
    • capillaries
  81. Actions of cortisol
    • increases blood glucose
    • anti-inflammation
    • anti-stress
    • decreases immunity
  82. Sex hormones production gland
    adrenal cortex
  83. Sex hormones cell type
    zona reticularis
  84. Target of sex hormones
    body cells
  85. Actions of sex hormones
    • androgen-masculine characteristics
    • estrogen-breast development
  86. Epinephrine aka
    adrenaline
  87. Epinephrine production gland
    adrenal medulla
  88. Epinephrine cell type
    chromaffin cells
  89. Targets of epinephrine
    • lungs
    • heart
    • liver
    • blood vessels
  90. Actions of epinephrine
    • dilates respiratory tract
    • increases heart rate
    • increases blood glucose
    • increases blood pressure
  91. NE production gland
    adrenal medulla
  92. NE cell type
    chromaffin cells
  93. Target of NE
    blood vessels
  94. Actions of NE
    • maintains blood pressure
    • vasoconstriction
  95. Melatonin production gland
    pineal
  96. Melatonin cell type
    pinealoyte
  97. Target of melatonin
    • brain
    • possibly gonads
  98. Actions of melatonin
    • produced in periods of low light
    • sleepiness
    • possibly onset of puberty
  99. Glucagon production gland
    pancreas
  100. Glucagon cell type
    alpha cells
  101. Target of glucagon
    liver
  102. Action of glucagon
    increases blood glucose
  103. Insulin production gland
    pancreas
  104. Insulin cell type
    beta cells
  105. Target of insulin
    liver
  106. Action of insulin
    decreases blood glucose
  107. Somatostatin production gland
    pancreas
  108. Somatostatin cell type
    delta cells
  109. Target of somatostatin
    alpha and beta cells
  110. Action of somatostatin
    inhibits alpha and beta cell activity
  111. What are prostaglandins?
    fatty acid related local hormones that can be produced anywhere
  112. Target of prostaglandins
    production site (usually smooth muscle)
  113. Actions of prostaglandins
    • causes fever,
    • pain,
    • headache,
    • spasms
    • constricts muscles
    • dilates blood vessels
  114. What causes ketone formation in blood?
    fatty acid metabolism
  115. Acidosis
    • low blood pH
    • caused by high ketone levels in the blood
  116. Hypoparathyroidism
    • decrease in calcium causing:
    • disturbances in muscular contraction
    • nervous disorders
    • weak bones
  117. Hyperparathyroidism
    • increase in calcium causing:
    • precipitation of calcium in the urinary trach
    • formation of kidney stones
    • demineralization of bones
  118. Glucosuria
    glucose in urine
  119. Polyuria
    increased urine production
  120. Polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  121. Polyphagia
    excessive hunger
  122. IDDM
    • insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
    • aka type1,
    • juvenile onset diabetes
  123. Type 1 diabetes is most common among
    ppl below 20 years of age
  124. Cause of type 1 diabetes
    • hyposecretion of insulin
    • autoimmune disorder with a genetic link
    • beta cells are destroyed by the body
  125. Treatment of type 1 diabetes
    insulin injections
  126. Complications of type 1 diabetes
    • increased fatty acid metabolism leads to acidosis
    • increased lipid trransport can lead to cardiovascular disorders
    • cataracts
  127. NIDDM
    • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
    • aka type 2,
    • adult onset diabetes mellitus
  128. Type 2 diabetes is most common among
    • ppl over age 40
    • 90% of all diabetes cases
  129. Cause of type 2 diabetes
    • receptor cells of the body are not sensitive to insulin
    • genetic predisposition
    • obesity
    • lifestyle/diet
    • pregnancy
  130. Treatments for type 2 diabetes
    • diet therapy
    • exercise
    • oral medication
    • weight loss
    • sometimes insulin injections
  131. Gestational diabetes mellitus
    • occurs in pregnancy
    • clears after delivery
    • can cause complications for the fetus

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