Asepsis and Infection Control

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shelly_762003
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103193
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Asepsis and Infection Control
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2011-09-24 14:56:39
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Asepsis Infection Control
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Chapter 27 10-12 questions on midterm - Carrow
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  1. Identify the six components of the chain of infection.
    • These six components must be met.
    • 1.Infectious Agent
    • 2.Source
    • 3.Portal of Exit
    • 4.Mode of Transmission
    • 5.Portal of Entry
    • 6.Susceptible Host
  2. Nursing practice focuses on ...
    providing a safeand therapeautic environment to protect clients, family members, and healthcare providers from acquiring infection.
  3. Pathogens are
    microorganisms that are capable of harming people.
  4. Sepsis is ...
    a term meaning poisoning of the tissues, often is used to describe the presence of infection.
  5. septicemia is
    transport of an infection or or products of infection through out the body by the blood.
  6. when a client is referred to as septic i means ...
    he or she is displaying the manifestations of systemic or widespread microbial destruction of tissues, often accompanied by high fever or hypotension.
  7. infectious disease refers to
    the pathologic events that result from the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a host.
  8. The manifestations of infection include:
    fever, rashes, malaise, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, purulent discharge from wounds, a hot, red, tender area around wounds or puncture sites, aches and pains, or total body collapse.
  9. Aseptic techniques start and end with ..
    handwashing
  10. The processes of aseptic technique include:
    cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization
  11. Bacteria are
    single celled independently living microorganisms some of which are capable of causing disease in humans.
  12. viruses are
    living microorganisms composed of particles of nucleic acid and protein.
  13. fungi are
    single celled organisms that include molds and yeast.
  14. Candida Albicans causes yeast infections in the
    mouth, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina in immunocompromised adults.
  15. parasites are:
    multicellular organisms that live on other organisms without contributing anything to their hosts.
  16. factors that have contributed to the evolution of resistant microbial organisms include the following:
    • - overperscription of antibiotics
    • - use of inappropriate antibiotics for the infecting organism.
    • - incomplete use of antibiotic perscriptions as symptoms subside.
    • - harboring and spreading of resistant organisms by carriers who remain symptom free, usually unaware they are infected.
    • - increased use of antibiotics in farming thus contaminating milk and meat.
  17. The four prevention strategies to lessen the risk of infection:
    • 1. infection prevention that includes the use of bundles to provide diligent care for vascular and urinary catheters and ventilators.
    • 2.swift and precise diagnosis and treatment of the infectious organism.
    • 3. accurate use of antimicrobials.
    • 4. meticulous adherence to evidence based transmission prevention strategies.
  18. The procedures with the biggest risk of infection are:
    urinary and vascular catheter, and ventilators.
  19. The chain of infection includes all of the following:
    infectious agent, source, portal of ecit, mode of tranmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host.
  20. pathogenicity is
    the organisms ability to harm and to cause disease
  21. virulence relates to
    vigor with which the organism can grow and multiply.
  22. invasiveness describes
    the organism's ability to enter tissues.
  23. specifity refers to
    the organism's attraction to a specific host.
  24. Three sources of organisms include
    inanimate objects (fomites), human beings, and animals.
  25. inanimate objects include
    medications, air, water, food, or any other material where an organism can find nourishment or lie dormant and survive.
  26. The following items are portals of exit:
    sputum, emesis, stool, urine, blood, wound drainage or secretions from genitals.
  27. The five main routes of tranmission include:
    contact, vehicle, droplet, airborne, and vectorborne
  28. The two forms of contact transmission are:
    • direct contact: body surface to body surface contact
    • indirect contact: a susceptible host is exposed to a contaminated object such as a dressing, needle, or surgical insturment.
  29. Pathogens can enter a susceptible host via:
    mouth, nose, ears, vagina, eyes, rectum or urethra. Also breaks in the skin.
  30. Risk factors that contribute to the development of Hospital Acquired Infections can be grouped into three categories?
    environment, therapeautic regimen, and client resistance.
  31. The following are healthcare settings where a client can achieve an infection:
    acute care settings, extended care facilities, ambulatory care facilities, home care, schools, and or the workplace.
  32. What are the two major categories of aseptic practice:
    • medical asepsis: refers to the measures taken to control and reduce the number of pathogens present. Requires "clean technique"
    • Surgical asepsis: refers to "sterile technique" a object must be free from all organisms.
  33. Sterile technique is required for the following immunocompromised patients:
    premature newborns, burn clients, transplant recipients, and clients receiving radiation and chemotherapy.
  34. The single most effective method of preventing nosocomial infections is
    handwashing
  35. Alcohol based products are not effective against the following viruses so handwashing is a required.
    clostridium difficile or the norovirus.
  36. what is disinfection
    chemical of physical processes used to reduce the number of pathogens of an objects surface.
  37. a disinfectant is
    a chemical used on lifeless objects.
  38. antiseptic is
    a chemical used on a living object.
  39. bactericidal is
    a chemical that kills microorganisms
  40. bacteriostatic is
    a chemical that prevents multiplication but does not kill bacteria.
  41. sterilization is
    the complete destruction of all microorganisms including spores.
  42. The following precaitions should be taken with airborne transmission
    • put the client in a private negative airflow room with adequate filtration, mask by both nurse and then patient when being transported out of their room.
  43. The following precautions should be taken with droplet transmission
    put the client in a private room or a cohabitation with a client infected with the same organism. Mask required if within 3 feet of client. mask worn by client during transport.

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