Psychology

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
10323
Filename:
Psychology
Updated:
2010-03-13 22:24:02
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Motivation and Work
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Motivation and Work
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  1. Motivation
    a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour.
  2. Instinct
    a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
  3. Drive-reduction theory
    the idea that a physiological need creates a drive that motivate an organism to satisfy the need. e.g.) eat or drink
  4. Homeostatis
    The tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state.
  5. Incentive
    a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour.
  6. Heirarchy of needs
    Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become more active.
  7. Set point
    the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolism rate may act to restore the lost weight.
  8. Basal metabolic rate
    the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest.
  9. Sexual response cycle
    the 4 stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson --excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
  10. Refractory period
    a resting period after an orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
  11. Sexual Disorder
    a problem that consistenly impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
  12. Flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with the diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement in one's skill.
  13. Industrial-Organizational Pyschology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces.
  14. Personnel Psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
  15. Organizational Psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
  16. Structured Interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whome is rated on established scales.
  17. Halo errors
    judgements based on personal qualities rather than on-the-job behaviour.
  18. Leniency and Severity errors
    Blanket judgements treating everyone too nicely or harshly.
  19. Recency Errors
    Judgements based on easily remembered recent behaviour.
  20. Achievement motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment
  21. Task Leadership
    goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
  22. Social Leadership
    group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.

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