BioPsychCh1

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Author:
HHedlund
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103250
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BioPsychCh1
Updated:
2011-09-25 20:04:35
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Major Issues Genetics Behavior Use Animals Research
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Chapter 1: Sections 1, 2, 3,
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  1. Biological Psychology
    Study of physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
  2. What does a neuron do?
    Receives information/transmits it to other cells by conducting chemical impulses
  3. What do glia do?
    Cell in nervous system does not conduct impulses across large distances
  4. Phsiological Explanation
    Relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs.

    Ex: Chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity
  5. Ontogenetic Explanation
    How a structure or behavior develops
  6. Functional Explanation
    Describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did

    Ex: Genetic drift
  7. Mind-Brain Problem
    Question of how the mind is related to the brain
  8. Materialism
    The view that everything that exists is material or physical.
  9. Mentalism
    The view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind wee aware of it.
  10. Identity Position
    The view that mental processes and brain processes are the same things, described in different terms
  11. Solipsism
    I alone exist, ot I alone am conscious
  12. Hard Problem
    Concerns why/how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness
  13. Monism
    Belief the universe consists of only one substance

    • Evidence
    • Brain simulation
    • Brain damage
    • Consciousness
  14. Genes
    Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another.
  15. Chromosomes
    Strands of genes
  16. Homozygous/Heterozygous
    Identical pairs of genes on two chromosomes

    Unmatched pair of genes is hetero
  17. Dominant/Recessive Genes
    Gene either shows strong effect in homozygous or heterozygous condition
  18. Sex-Linked Genes
    All other chromosomes are autosomal chromosomes and their genes are known as autosomal genes
  19. Sex-Limited Genes
    Distinct from the sex-linked genes, sex-limited genes are present in both sexes, generally on autosomal chromosomes, but active mainly in one sex
  20. Monozygotic/Dizygotic
    "From one egg"
  21. "From same egg"
  22. Heritability
    Variation in some characteristic depend largely on genetic differences, then it has high heritability
  23. Multiplier Effect
    Tendency for small genetic influences to change the environment in a way that magnifies change
  24. PKU (phenylketonuria)
    Genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
  25. Evolution
    How genes change over generations
  26. Artificial Selection
    Individuals are chosen with desired traits so that they become parents of the next generation
  27. Lamarckian evolution
    If certain abilities are execised, those strong points will be passed along to offspring. There is not truth to this. It's bullshit. Thanks for including it in the textbook.
  28. Fitness
    The number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations
  29. Evolutionary psychology
    Deals with how behaviors have evolved, especially in social behaviors
  30. Reasons For Animal Research
    • 1) Underlyin mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and sometimes easier to study in a nonhuman species.
    • 2) We are interested in animals for their own sake
    • 3) What we learn about animals sheds light on human evolution
    • 4) Certain experiments cannot use humans because of legal/ethical restrictions
  31. Minimalists
    Tolerate animal research under certain conditions - some are okay and others are not
  32. Abolitionists
    No room for compromise - It's never okay to use animals seeing as they have the same rights as humans
  33. Identity Position
    Brain activity and mental processes are the same but different. So the mind is acually brain activity.
  34. Easy Problems
    Difference between states of consciousness and identifying structure/function relationships
  35. Hard Problems
    WHY does brain activity produce consciousness? What is the purpose of consciousness?
  36. Autosomal Genes
    All other genes except for sex-linked genes
  37. Heritability
    Genes on sex chromosomes
  38. Variation
    within a species, individuals vary in physical/behavioral characteristics
  39. Inheritance
    Offspring inherit characteristics from their parents
  40. Selection
    Characteristics which enhance survival from their parents

    * Evolution requires variation *
  41. Reasons for Animal Research
    • - Underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species
    • - For their own sake
    • - Sheds light on evolution
    • - Unethical to use people

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