BioPsychCh2

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Author:
HHedlund
ID:
103252
Filename:
BioPsychCh2
Updated:
2011-09-21 01:53:21
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Cells Nervous System Nerve Impulse
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Description:
Chapter 2: Section 1, 2,
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  1. Neurons
    Receive info and transmit it to other cells
  2. Membrane
    Structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment

    Has 2 layers of fat molecules that are free to flow around one another
  3. Nucleus
    Contains chromosomes
  4. Mitochondrion
    Performs metabolic activity providing energy for the cell
  5. Ribosomes
    Sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules
  6. Motor Neuron
    Some is in the center of the spinal cord.

    Receives excitation from other neurons through its dendrites and conducts impulses along its axon to a muscle
  7. Sensory Neuron
    Specialized at one end to be very sensitive to a particular type of stimulation like light, sound or touch
  8. Dendrites
    Receives info from neurons. The greater the surface area the more info it can receive
  9. What does the cell body contain?
    nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria,
  10. Axon
    Information sender of the neuron, conveys an impusle toward other nuerons or an organ/muscle
  11. Presynaptic terminal
    Point from which the acon releases chemicals that cross through the junction between one neuron and the next
  12. Afferent Axon
    Brings information into the structure
  13. Efferent axon
    Carries information away from a structure
  14. Glia
    Do not transmit info over long distances like neurons, but they exchange chemicals with adjacent neurons
  15. Astrocytes
    Helps synchronize the activity of the axons which lets them send messages in waves
  16. Microglia
    Very small cells, remove waste materials
  17. Oligodentrocytes
    In the brain and spinal cord
  18. Schwann Cells
    Build myelin sheaths in that surround and insulate certain vertebrate axons
  19. Radial Glia
    Guide the migration of neurons and their axons and dendrites during embryonic development
  20. Electrical gradient
    Difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside the cell
  21. Polarization
    Difference in electrical charge between 2 locations

    Neuron inside is (-)
  22. Sodium-Potassium Pump
    Transports 3 sodium ions OUT of the cell and transports 2 potassium ions IN
  23. Concentration gradient
    Difference in distribution of ions across the membrane

    Ex: Sodium is more likely to enter the cell because it more concentrated outside than inside
  24. Hyperpolarization
    Increased polarization
  25. All or None Law
    Amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it
  26. Myelin
    Insulating material made of fats and proteins
  27. Saltatory Conduction
    Jumping potentials from node to node

    Conserves energy
  28. Electrical Gradient
    Difference in electrical charge between inside/outside of the cell
  29. Resting potential
    Difference in voltage in a resting neuron
  30. Schwann Cells
    • Are in the PNS
    • It's possible to reattach limbs

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