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2011-09-21 02:58:15
Structure Vertebrate Nervous System Cerebral Cortex Research Methods

Chapter 4: Section 1, 2, 3
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  1. Neuroanatomy
    Anatomy of the nervous system
  2. Central Nervous System
    Consists of the brain and spinal cord
  3. Peripheral Nervous System
    Consists of nerves outsides the brain and spinal cord
  4. Somatic Nervous System
    • Part of the PNS
    • Contains axons conveying messages from sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the muscles
  5. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Part of PNS
    • Controls the heart and intestines
  6. Dorsal
    Towards the back
  7. Ventral
    Toward the stomach
  8. Anterior
    Toward the front end
  9. Posterior
    Toward the rear end
  10. Superior
    Above another part
  11. Inferior
    Below another part
  12. Lateral
    Toward the side, away from the midline
  13. Medial
    Toward the midline, away from the sides
  14. Horizontal Plane
    Shows brain from above
  15. Sagittal Plane
    Shows brain from the side
  16. Coronal plane
    shows brain from the front
  17. Contralateral
    On the opposite side of the body
  18. Ipsilateral
    On the same side of the body
  19. Distal
    More distant from the point of origin
  20. Proximal
    Closer to the point of origin
  21. Bell-Magendie Law
    One of the first discoveries about the functions of the nervous system, the entering dorsal roots carry sensory info, and the exiting ventral roots carry motor info
  22. Gray Matter of Spine
    • H shaped
    • packed with cell bodies and dendrites
  23. White Matter of Spine
    Loaded with myelinated axons
  24. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Part of ANS
    • Prepares the organs for activity
  25. Parasympathetic NS
    • Part of ANS
    • Facilitiates vegetative- non emergency responses
    • Decreases heart rate, increases digestive rate, conserves energy
  26. What's included in the hindbrain?
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Cerebellum
  27. Medulla
    Controls some vital reflexes- sneezing, coughing swallowing, etc
  28. Raphe System
    Sends axons to much of the forebrain which modifys the brains readiness to respond to stimuli
  29. Cerebellum
    • Control of movement
    • Balance and coordination
  30. Superior Colliculi
  31. Inferior Colliculi
  32. Forebrain
    Controls muscles on opposite sides of the body
  33. Thalamus
    Takes in sensory info and sends it out to the cerebral cortex
  34. Hypothalamus
    Conveys messages to the pituitary gland which alters its release of hormones
  35. Meninges
    Membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  36. Occipital Lobe
    Main target for visual information
  37. Temporal Lobe
    Main target for auditory information
  38. Precentral gyrus
    control of fine movements
  39. Categories for Brain Function
    • 1) Relationship between anatomy and behavior
    • 2) Record brain activity during behavior
    • 3) Examine effects of brain damage
    • 4) Examine effects of stimulating some brain area
  40. Phrenology
    • Franz Gall
    • Reading skull anatomy
  41. CAT
    • Dye is injected in blood
    • Head scanned from all angles
    • Picture of brain is made
  42. MRI
    Magnetic field aligns axis and tilts them w/ brief radio frequency
  43. EEG
    Records electrical activity of the brain - electrodes attached to scalp
  44. MEG
    Measures faint electrical fields and activities
  45. PET
    High resolution imge of activity in living brain (most active areas)
  46. Lesion
    Damage to brain area
  47. Ablation
    Removal of brain area - doesnt tell what structure does or what brain could do in it's absence
  48. Nikolaas Tinbergen 1973 Nobel Prize Winner
    Biological Question
    • 1) Physiological: Emphasis on brain and organs
    • 2) Genetic: Development of a structure/behavior
    • 3) Evolutionary: History of behavior
    • 4) Functional: Why/how a behavior occurred