Personality Exam 1

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  1. imagination inflation effect
    memory is elaborated on in imagination leading to confusion of whether it happened or not.
  2. spreading activation
    model of memory that holds mental elements are stored in memory with associations to other elements. e.g. doctor, nurse
  3. constructive memory
    memory contributes to influences, what is recalled.
  4. confirmatory bias
    tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and not look for evidence disconfirming their belief.
  5. motivated unconscious
    something in the unconscious can motivate behavior.
  6. cognitive unconscious
    acknowledge that info can get into memory without our being aware of the info.
  7. subliminal perception
    primes associated material in memory.
  8. id psychology
    freudian psychoanalysis
  9. ego psychology
    approach to psychoanalysis started by Erikson.
  10. identity crisis
    desperation and confusion one feels when they havent developed a strong sense of identity.
  11. psychosocial conflicts
    crises of learning we have to get through to grow
  12. stage model of development
    people go through stages in a particular order.
  13. developmental crisis
    each stage is a conflict that needs to be resolved.
  14. fixation
    if crisis not resolved, personality development could become arrested.
  15. identity confusion
    not having a strong sense of who one is.
  16. negative identity
    identity founded on undesireable social roles.
  17. identity forclosure
    accepting the values of the parents.
  18. moratorium
    taking time to explore options before making a commitment to an identity.
  19. Eriskon's 8 stages of development
  20. fear of success
    gender differences in response to competition and achievement situations.
  21. self-serving bias
    tendency for people to take credit for successes but deny responsibility for failure.
  22. narcissistic paradox
    narcissists appear high in self esteem but actually have doubts about their worth.
  23. object relations theory
    • emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood.
    • how we look at our own relationships.
  24. internalizing
    creating a conscious mental representation.
  25. Incentive processing system
    • Causes kids to be more attentive to rewards, and more interested in sensation seeking.
    • part of identity vs role confusion
  26. Cognitive control system
    • Teenagers have a stronger preference for immediate reward and experimentally have been shown to think for less time than adults before a decision.
    • identity vs role confusion
  27. secure attachment style
    comfortable with people, not afraid of abandonment
  28. ambivalent attachment style
    needy, attached, clingy, afraid of abandonment
  29. avoidant attachment style
    detached, isolated, maybe afraid to show attachment or be attached to
  30. motives
    internal states that arouse and direct behvior toward specific objects or goals.
  31. hierarchy of needs
    • Murray
    • to describe motives - physio, safety, esteem, belonging, self actualizing
  32. press
    • need-relevant aspects of the environment.
    • e.g. wont reach out to people without friendly people around.
  33. alpha press
    real environment, objective reality
  34. beta press
    reality as it is perceived
  35. apperception
    act of perceiving and interpreting the environment.
  36. TAT
    • thematic apperception test
    • to reveal motives
  37. state levels
    refer to a person's momentary amount of a specific need
  38. trait levels
    measuring a person's average tendency on a specific trait
  39. Multi-Motive grid
    combines features of TAT with features of self-report questionaires.
  40. implicit motivation
    • motives based on needs
    • achievement, power, intimacy
  41. self-attributed motivation
    a persons self awareness of their conscious motives.
  42. need for achievement
    desire to do better, be successful, feel competent.
  43. need for power
    readiness or preference for having an impact on other people.
  44. need for intimacy
    recurrent preference or readiness for warm, close, and communicative interaction with others.
  45. independence training
    parents behaving in ways that promote autonomy and independence in their children.
  46. responsibility training
    decreases likelihood of impulsive behaviors occuring.
  47. power stress
    when people with high nPow dont get their way they show stress reponses.
  48. humanistic tradition
    • emphasizes the role of choice in human life.
    • meaning of any person's life is found in a persons choices and taking responsibility for them.
  49. psychological needs
    • Maslow
    • safety needs
    • physiological needs
    • belongingness needs
    • esteem needs
    • self actualization needs
  50. flow
    subjective state people report when they are completely involved in something to the oint of forgettin gtime, fatigue and everything else but the activity itself.
  51. fully functioning person
    on the way to self actualization.
  52. positive regard
    love, affection
  53. conditions of worth
    requirement set forth by parents to gain positive regard.
  54. conditional positive regard
    is positive regard when it must be earned.
  55. unconditional positive regard
    love no matter what you do.
  56. distortion
    modifying an experience rather than self image to decrease a threat.
  57. client-centered therapy
    letting client talk without offrering interpretations on behavior.
  58. core conditions
    • must be present for client to trust therapist and progress
    • genuine acceptance
    • unconditional positive regard
    • empathetic understanding
  59. Denial-
    Refusal to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli. Denying the anxiety outright.
  60. Rationalization –
    creating false reasons or explanations for anxiety in the form of a shortcoming.
  61. Projection –
    seeing in others unacceptable feelings that reside in one’s own unconscious
  62. Displacement –
    acting out your own anxiety on an innocent party.
  63. Reaction formation-
    reversing the nature of the anxiety so that it feels like its opposite nature/ exaggerating the opposite to prevent anxiety provocation.
  64. Sublimation-
    Channeling anxiety into socially-acceptable activties; displacement which discharges all the energy successfully.
  65. Regression –
    retreating to earlier stage of fixated development.
  66. Intellectualization-
    Distancing oneself from it by ‘studying it’.
  67. Identification-
    Identifying oneself with a feared person.
  68. Undoing –
    performing a ritualistic act to “undo” an unacceptable act or thought.
  69. oral stage
    • Erogenous zone is the mouth
    • Theme – infants are driven to satisfy the drives of hunger and thirst (dependency)
    • Pleasure from Sucking, Swallowing,Biting
    • Eating is the main pleasure, or drive
    • Weaning is the conflict to overcome
    • Psychological theme: dependency
  70. Anal stage –
    • Theme: child receives pleasure from relieving self of bodily waste.
    • Conflict: child is “toilet trained”
    • Erogenous zone is the anus-buttocks region
    • Pleasure from first expelling feces and then, during toilet training, from retaining feces
    • Psychological theme: self-control
    • Many conflicts arise around the child’s ability to achieve self-control
  71. Phallic Stage (3 yrs to 5 o 6)
    • Pleasure comes from genitals
    • Conflict: overt sexual behavior (masturbation) socially unacceptable
    • Fixation: vanity, narcissism, inability to love
    • Men are overly masculine and glory in sexual conquests
    • Women are overtly feminine and use their wiles to conquer men
    • Theme: Child gains pleasure through the genitals
    • Psychological theme: what it means to be a boy or girl
  72. Genital Stage (puberty-adulthood) Hormones
    • Thought that the ego is very busy because the id is very active
    • Successful resolution and development into a mature sexual relationship
    • Psychological theme: maturity and creation and enhancement of life
    • Sexual interest begins to focus on members of opposite sex
    • Theme: More investment of psychic energy in external object-choices rather than own body
    • The individual gains satisfaction from mature relationships
  73. object relations theory
    • how we look at our own relationships
    • Emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood
Card Set:
Personality Exam 1
2011-12-07 01:52:58
Personality Exam

Personality Exam 1 ch 9, 10, 11
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