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imagination inflation effect
memory is elaborated on in imagination leading to confusion of whether it happened or not.
model of memory that holds mental elements are stored in memory with associations to other elements. e.g. doctor, nurse
memory contributes to influences, what is recalled.
tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and not look for evidence disconfirming their belief.
something in the unconscious can motivate behavior.
acknowledge that info can get into memory without our being aware of the info.
primes associated material in memory.
approach to psychoanalysis started by Erikson.
desperation and confusion one feels when they havent developed a strong sense of identity.
crises of learning we have to get through to grow
stage model of development
people go through stages in a particular order.
each stage is a conflict that needs to be resolved.
if crisis not resolved, personality development could become arrested.
not having a strong sense of who one is.
identity founded on undesireable social roles.
accepting the values of the parents.
taking time to explore options before making a commitment to an identity.
Eriskon's 8 stages of development
fear of success
gender differences in response to competition and achievement situations.
tendency for people to take credit for successes but deny responsibility for failure.
narcissists appear high in self esteem but actually have doubts about their worth.
object relations theory
- emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood.
- how we look at our own relationships.
creating a conscious mental representation.
Incentive processing system
- Causes kids to be more attentive to rewards, and more interested in sensation seeking.
- part of identity vs role confusion
Cognitive control system
- Teenagers have a stronger preference for immediate reward and experimentally have been shown to think for less time than adults before a decision.
- identity vs role confusion
secure attachment style
comfortable with people, not afraid of abandonment
ambivalent attachment style
needy, attached, clingy, afraid of abandonment
avoidant attachment style
detached, isolated, maybe afraid to show attachment or be attached to
internal states that arouse and direct behvior toward specific objects or goals.
hierarchy of needs
- to describe motives - physio, safety, esteem, belonging, self actualizing
- need-relevant aspects of the environment.
- e.g. wont reach out to people without friendly people around.
real environment, objective reality
reality as it is perceived
act of perceiving and interpreting the environment.
- thematic apperception test
- to reveal motives
refer to a person's momentary amount of a specific need
measuring a person's average tendency on a specific trait
combines features of TAT with features of self-report questionaires.
- motives based on needs
- achievement, power, intimacy
a persons self awareness of their conscious motives.
need for achievement
desire to do better, be successful, feel competent.
need for power
readiness or preference for having an impact on other people.
need for intimacy
recurrent preference or readiness for warm, close, and communicative interaction with others.
parents behaving in ways that promote autonomy and independence in their children.
decreases likelihood of impulsive behaviors occuring.
when people with high nPow dont get their way they show stress reponses.
- emphasizes the role of choice in human life.
- meaning of any person's life is found in a persons choices and taking responsibility for them.
- safety needs
- physiological needs
- belongingness needs
- esteem needs
- self actualization needs
subjective state people report when they are completely involved in something to the oint of forgettin gtime, fatigue and everything else but the activity itself.
fully functioning person
on the way to self actualization.
conditions of worth
requirement set forth by parents to gain positive regard.
conditional positive regard
is positive regard when it must be earned.
unconditional positive regard
love no matter what you do.
modifying an experience rather than self image to decrease a threat.
letting client talk without offrering interpretations on behavior.
- must be present for client to trust therapist and progress
- genuine acceptance
- unconditional positive regard
- empathetic understanding
Refusal to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli. Denying the anxiety outright.
creating false reasons or explanations for anxiety in the form of a shortcoming.
seeing in others unacceptable feelings that reside in one’s own unconscious
acting out your own anxiety on an innocent party.
reversing the nature of the anxiety so that it feels like its opposite nature/ exaggerating the opposite to prevent anxiety provocation.
Channeling anxiety into socially-acceptable activties; displacement which discharges all the energy successfully.
retreating to earlier stage of fixated development.
Distancing oneself from it by ‘studying it’.
Identifying oneself with a feared person.
performing a ritualistic act to “undo” an unacceptable act or thought.
- Erogenous zone is the mouth
- Theme – infants are driven to satisfy the drives of hunger and thirst (dependency)
- Pleasure from Sucking, Swallowing,Biting
- Eating is the main pleasure, or drive
- Weaning is the conflict to overcome
- Psychological theme: dependency
Anal stage –
- Theme: child receives pleasure from relieving self of bodily waste.
- Conflict: child is “toilet trained”
- Erogenous zone is the anus-buttocks region
- Pleasure from first expelling feces and then, during toilet training, from retaining feces
- Psychological theme: self-control
- Many conflicts arise around the child’s ability to achieve self-control
Phallic Stage (3 yrs to 5 o 6)
- Pleasure comes from genitals
- Conflict: overt sexual behavior (masturbation) socially unacceptable
- Fixation: vanity, narcissism, inability to love
- Men are overly masculine and glory in sexual conquests
- Women are overtly feminine and use their wiles to conquer men
- Theme: Child gains pleasure through the genitals
- Psychological theme: what it means to be a boy or girl
Genital Stage (puberty-adulthood) Hormones
- Thought that the ego is very busy because the id is very active
- Successful resolution and development into a mature sexual relationship
- Psychological theme: maturity and creation and enhancement of life
- Sexual interest begins to focus on members of opposite sex
- Theme: More investment of psychic energy in external object-choices rather than own body
- The individual gains satisfaction from mature relationships
object relations theory
- how we look at our own relationships
- Emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood