kaplan psych names cards.txt

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kaplan psych names cards.txt
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The named psychologists from the kaplan psychology gre book, edited where relevant so answers do not include names
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  1. Hathaway & McKinley
    Developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  2. W. Wundt
    Founded first psychology research lab in 1879
  3. O. Kulpe
    Believed there could be imageless thought
  4. J. McKeen Cattell
    Introduced mental testing to the United States
  5. E. G. Boring
    Development of psychology is primarily due to Zeitgeist (changing spirit of the times) rather than efforts of great people.
  6. Aronson & Linder
    Proposed gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant)
  7. E. Tolman
    Experiments with maze running in rats led to cognitive map theory
  8. S. Asch
    Studies conformity by asking subjects to compare the lengths of lines
  9. K. Clark & M. Clark
    Performed study on doll preferences in African American children (used in Brown v. Board of Education); black and white children preferred white dolls
  10. Darley & Latane
    Proposed that there were two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility
  11. A. Eagly
    Suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender, per se, but to differing social roles
  12. L. Festinger
    Developed cognitive dissonance theory; also developed social comparison theory
  13. E. Hall
    Studies norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions
  14. F. Heider
    Developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: dispositional and situational
  15. C. Hovland
    studied attitude change, source credibility
  16. I. Janis
    Developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry
  17. M. Lerner
    proposed concept of belief in a just world
  18. K. Lewin
    Divided leadership styles into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
  19. W. McGuire
    studied how psychological inoculation could help people resist persuasion
  20. S. Milgram
    studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
  21. T. Newcomb
    studied political norms (community influence)
  22. Petty & Cacioppo
    developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (central and peripheral routes to persuasion)
  23. S. Schachter
    studies relationship between anxiety and the need for affiliation
  24. M. Sherif
    used autokinetic effect to study conformity; also performed Robber's Cave experiment and found that having superordinate goals increased intergroup cooperation
  25. R. Zajonc
    studied the mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of dominant responses and impairs the emission of nondominant responses
  26. P. Zimbardo
    performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results
  27. D. Bem
    developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive dissonance theory (evaluate attitudes based on behavior)
  28. M. Ainsworth
    devised the Strange Situation to study attachment
  29. D. Baumrind
    studied the relationship between parental style and aggression
  30. J. Bowlby
    studied attachment in human children
  31. N. Chomsky
    linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
  32. E. Erikson
    outlined eight stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan; ego psychologist
  33. S. Freud
    outlined five stages of psychosexual development; stressed the importance of the Oedipal conflict in psychosexual development; originator of the psychodynamic approach to personality; developed psychoanalysis
  34. A. Gesell
    believed that development was due primarily to maturation
  35. C. Gilligan
    suggested that males and females have different orientations toward morality
  36. G. Hall
    founder of developmental psychology
  37. H. Harlow
    used monkeys and "surrogate mothers" to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation
  38. L. Kohlberg
    studied moral development using moral dilemmas
  39. J. Locke
    British philosopher who suggested that infants had no predetermined tendencies, that they were blank slates (tabula rasa) to be written on by experience
  40. K. Lorenz
    ethologist who studied unlearned, instinctual behaviors in the natural environment; studied imprinting on birds; instrumental in founding ethology
  41. G. Mendel
    Hypothesized the existence of the basic unit of heredity, the gene, by studying pea plants
  42. J. Piaget
    outlined four stages of cognitive development
  43. J. Rousseau
    French philosopher who suggested that development could unfold without help from society
  44. L. Terman
    performed longitudinal study on gifted children
  45. R. Tryon
    studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats
  46. L. Vygotsky
    studied cognitive development; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development
  47. A. Adler
    psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of inferiority complex
  48. G. Allport
    trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic an nomothetic approaches to personality
  49. A. Bandura
    behavioral theorist known for his social learning theory; did modeling experiment using punching bag (Bobo doll) - studied observational learning
  50. S. Bem
    suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; also linked with concept of androgyny
  51. R. Cattell
    trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality; divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan
  52. Dollard and Miller
    behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behavioral framework; also known for their work on approach-avoidance conflicts
  53. H. Eysenck
    trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism
  54. A. Freud
    founder of ego psychology
  55. K. Horney
    psychodynamic theorist who suggested that there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, and moving away
  56. C. Jung
    psychodynamic theorist who broke with Freud over the concept of libido; suggested that the unconscious could be divided into the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, with archetypes being in the collective unconscious
  57. G. Kelly
    based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist"
  58. O. Kernberg
    object-relations theorist
  59. M. Klein
    object-relations theorist
  60. K. Lewin
    phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory
  61. M. Mahler
    object-relations theorist
  62. A. Maslow
    phenomenological personality theorist known for developing a hierarchy of needs and for the concept of self-actualization
  63. D. McClelland
    studied need for achievement (nAch)
  64. W. Mischel
    Human behavior is largely determined by the situation rather than personal characteristics
  65. C. Rogers
    phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based upon the concept of unconditional positive regard
  66. J. Rotter
    studied locus of control (internal vs. external); developed a sentence completion test; a projective test designed to measure personality
  67. W. Sheldon
    attempted to relate somatotype (body type) to personality type
  68. B. F. Skinner
    behaviorist; developed principles of operant conditioning
  69. D. W. Winnicott
    object-relations theorist
  70. H. Witkin
    studied field-dependence and field-independence using the rod and frame test
  71. A. Beck
    Cognitive behavior therapist known for his therapy for depression
  72. E. Bleuler
    coined the term schizophrenia
  73. D. Dix
    19th century American advocate of asylum reform
  74. A. Ellis
    Cognitive behavior therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)
  75. E. Kraepelin
    developed system in 19th century for classifying mental disorders; DSM-IV can be considered to be a descendant of this system
  76. P. Pinel
    reformed French asylums in late 18th century
  77. D. Rosenhan
    investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals
  78. M. Seligman
    formulated learned helplessness theory of depression
  79. T. Szasz
    suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not really mental disorders; wrote "The Myth of Mental Illness"
  80. P. Broca
    French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language
  81. W. Cannon
    physiologist who studied the autonomic nervous system, including fight or flight reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard, proposed the theory of emotions that states physiological arousal and brain circuits both affect subjective emotion experience.
  82. E. Kandel
    demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails (Aplysia) is associated with changes in neurotransmission
  83. James & Lange
    Pair who proposed theory of emotions that states we recognize emotions based on bodily reaction/behavior.
  84. Kluver & Bucy
    studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied the amygdala's role in emotions
  85. A. Luria
    Russian neurologist who studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions
  86. B. Milner
    studied severe anterograde amnesia in H.M., a patient whose hippocampus and temporal lobes were removed surgically to control epilepsy
  87. Olds & Milner
    demonstrated existence of pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats
  88. W. Penfield
    Canadian neurosurgeon who used electrodes and electrical stimulation techniques to "map" out different parts of the brain during surgery
  89. Schachter & Singer
    Pair who proposed theory of emotions that states physiological arousal will be interpreted as different emotions depending on environmental cues.
  90. C. Sherrington
    English physiologist who first inferred the existence of the synapse
  91. Sperry & Gazzaniga
    investigated functional differences between left and right cerebral hemispheres using "split brain" studies
  92. C. Wernicke
    German neurologist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language
  93. G. Bekesy
    empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory
  94. G. Berkeley
    Developed a list of depth cues that help us to perceive depth
  95. D. Broadbent
    proposed filter theory of attention
  96. G. Fechner
    developed law which expresses the relationship between the intensity of the stimulus and the intensity of the sensation
  97. Gibson & Walk
    developed the visual cliff apparatus, which is used to study the development of depth perception
  98. J. Gibson
    studied depth cues (especially texture gradients) that help us to perceive depth
  99. H. Helmholtz
    developed trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception
  100. E. Hering
    developed opponent process theory of color vision
  101. Hubel & Wiesel
    studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
  102. W. Kohler
    developed theory of isomorphism (one-to-one correspondence between the object in the perceptual field and the pattern of stimulation in the brain); studied insight in problem solving
  103. Melzack & Wall
    proposed gate theory of pain
  104. S. S. Stevens
    developed own law as an alternative to Fechner's law
  105. J. A. Swets
    refined Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves in signal detection theory
  106. Cerletti & Bini
    Introduced electroshock
  107. Wever & Bray
    proposed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
  108. Yerkes & Dodson
    Pair who developed Law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
  109. Breland & Breland
    discovered and studied instinctual drift
  110. C. Darwin
    proposed a theory of evolution with natural selection as its centerpiece
  111. J. Garcia
    studied taste-aversion learning and proposed that some species are biologically prepared to learn connections between certain stimuli
  112. I. Pavlov
    discovered the basic principles of classical conditioning
  113. D. Premack
    suggested the principle that states a more-preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
  114. R. Rescorla
    performed experiments which showed that contiguity could not fully explain classical conditioning; proposed contingency theory of classical conditioning
  115. E. Thorndike
    proposed the law of effect (basis for operant conditioning); used puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats
  116. N. Tinbergen
    ethologist who introduced experimental methods into field situations
  117. J. Watson
    performed experiment on Little Albert that suggested that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning
  118. E. O. Wilson
    developed sociobiology
  119. J. Wolpe
    developed method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias
  120. F. Bartlett
    investigated the role of schemata in memory; concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process
  121. Collins & Loftus
    devised the spreading activation model of semantic memory (closeness of association between words --> speed of response about relationships between them)
  122. Craik & Lockhart
    developed the levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory
  123. H. Ebbinghaus
    studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings
  124. H. Gardner
    proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important; traditional IQ tests measure only two of the seven types
  125. J. Guilford
    devised divergent thinking test to measure creativity
  126. Kahneman & Tversky
    investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic
  127. E. Loftus
    studied eyewitness memory and concluded that our memories can be altered by presenting new information or by asking misleading questions
  128. A. Luchins
    used the water-jar problem to study the effect of mental sets on problem-solving
  129. Macoby & Jacklin
    found support for gender differences in verbal ability
  130. McClelland & Rumelhart
    suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing (PDP)
  131. G. Miller
    found that the capacity of short-term memory is seven (plus or minus two) items
  132. A. Paivio
    proposed dual-code hypothesis: abstract information tends to be encoded verbally, whereas concrete information tends to be encoded both visually and verbally
  133. Smith, Shoben, & Rips
    devised the semantic feature-comparison model of semantic memory
  134. C. Spearman
    suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g
  135. G. Sperling
    studied the capacity of sensory memory using the partial-report method
  136. R. Sternberg
    proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: componential, experiential, and contextual
  137. L. Thurstone
    used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities - factors more specific than g, but more general than s
  138. B. Whorf
    hypothesized that language determines how reality is perceived
  139. Binet & Simon
    Pair who developed own intelligence test; introduced the concept of mental age
  140. J. Holland
    developed the RIASEC model of occupational themes
  141. A. Jensen
    suggested that there were genetically based racial differences in IQ; this suggestion has been much criticized
  142. Morgan & Murray
    developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a projective test designed to measure personality
  143. H. Rorschach
    developed inkblot test, a projective test designed to measure personality
  144. W. Stern
    Developed the concept of the ratio IQ
  145. Strong & Campbell
    Pair who developed own Interest Inventory; used to assess interest in different lines of work
  146. L. Terman
    revised the Binet-Simon intelligence test; revision became known as the Stanford-Binet IQ Test
  147. D. Wechsler
    developed several intelligence tests for use with different ages (WPPSI, WISC, WAIS), these tests yield three deviation IQs: verbal, performance, & full-scale
  148. K. von Frisch
    ethologist who studied communication in honey bees

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