psych names cards.txt

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  1. Aronson and Linder
    proposed the gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant
  2. Asch
    studied conformity by asking subjects to compare the lengths of lines
  3. Bem
    developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive-dissonance theory; suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny
  4. clark and clark
    performed a famous study on doll preferences in African American children
  5. Darley and Latane
    proposed that there were two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility
  6. Eagly
    suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender, per se, but to differing social roles
  7. Festinger
    developed cognitive dissonance theory; also developed social comparison theory
  8. Hall
    studied norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions
  9. Heider
    developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: dispositional and situational
  10. Hovland
    studied attitude change
  11. Janis
    developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry
  12. Lerner
    proposed the concept of belief in a just world
  13. Lewin
    divided leadership styles into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
  14. McGuire
    studied how psychological inoculation could help people resist persuasion
  15. Milgram
    studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
  16. Newcomb
    studied political norms
  17. Petty and Cacioppo
    developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
  18. schachter
    studied relationship between anxiety and the need for affiliation
  19. Sherif
    used the autokinetic effect to study conformity; also performed the Robber's Cave experiment
  20. Zajonc
    studied the mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of dominant responses and impairs the emission of nondominant responses
  21. Zimbardo
    performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results
  22. Ainsworth
    devised the "strange situation" to study attachment
  23. Baumrind
    studied the relationship between parental style and aggression
  24. Bowlby
    studied attachment in children
  25. Chomsky
    linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
  26. Erikson
    outlined the eight stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan
  27. Freud
    outlined five stages of psychosexual development
  28. Gesell
    believed that development was due primarily to maturation
  29. Gilligan
    suggested that males and females have different orientations toward morality
  30. Hall
    founder of developmental psychology
  31. Harlow
    used monkeys and surrogate mothers to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation
  32. Kohlberg
    studied moral development using moral dilemmas
  33. Locke
    believed in the blank slate
  34. Lorenz
    studied imprinting in birds
  35. Piaget
    outlined four stages of cognitive development
  36. Rousseau
    French philosopher who suggested that development could unfold without help from society
  37. Terman
    performed a longitudinal study on gifted children
  38. Tyron
    studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats
  39. Vygotsky
    studied cognitive development; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development
  40. Adler
    psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of the inferiority complex
  41. Allport
    trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality
  42. Bandura
    behaviorist theorist known for his social learning theory; did modeling experiment using "Bobo" doll; studied observational learning
  43. Cattell
    trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality
  44. Dollard and Miller
    behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework
  45. Eysenck
    trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism
  46. Horney
    Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, moving away from
  47. Jung
    talked about the collective unconscious
  48. Kelly
    based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist"
  49. Kerberg
    object-relations theorist
  50. Klein
    object-relations theorist
  51. Lewin
    phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory
  52. Mahler
    object-relations theorist
  53. Maslow
    Phenomenological personality theorist known for hierarchy of needs and self-actualization
  54. McClelland
    studied the need for achievement (nAch)
  55. Mischel
    critic of trait theories of personality
  56. Rogers
    phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based on the concept of unconditional positive regard
  57. Rotter
    studied locus of control
  58. Sheldon
    attempted to relate somatotype to personality type
  59. Skinner
    behaviorist; developed principles of operant conditioning
  60. Winnicott
    object-relations theorist
  61. Witkin
    studied field-dependence and field-independence using the rod and frame test
  62. Beck
    CBT therapist known for his therapy for depression
  63. Bleuler
    coined the term schizophrenia
  64. Dix
    19th century American advocate of asylum reform
  65. Ellis
    CBT therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)
  66. Kraepelin
    developed a system in the 19th century for classifying mental disorders
  67. Pinel
    reformed French asylums in the 18th century
  68. Rosenhan
    investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals
  69. Seligman
    formulated the learned helplessness theory of depression
  70. Szasz
    suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not real disorders
  71. Broca
    French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language
  72. Cannon
    physiologist who studied the autonomic nervous system, including "fight or flight" reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions
  73. Kandel
    demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails is associated with changes in neurotransmission
  74. James and Lange
    proposed the James-Lange theory of emotions
  75. Kluver and Bucy
    studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied the amygdala's role in emotions
  76. Luria
    studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions
  77. Milner
    studied H.M.
  78. Olds and Milner, P.
    demonstrated the existence of the pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats
  79. Penfield
    mapped out different parts of the brain during surgery
  80. Schacter and Singer
    proposed the Schachter-Singer theory of emotions
  81. Sherrington
    first inferred the existence of the synapse
  82. Sperry and Gazzaniga
    did split-brain studies
  83. Wernicke
    identified the part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language
  84. Bekesy
    empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory
  85. Berkeley
    developed a list of depth cues that help us perceive depth
  86. Broadbent
    proposed filter theory of attention
  87. Fechner
    developed Fechner's law, which expresses the relationship between the intensity of the stimulus and the intensity of the sensation
  88. Gibson and Walk
    developed the visual cliff apparatus
  89. Gibson
    studied depth cues, especially texture gradients
  90. Helmholtz
    developed the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception
  91. Hering
    developed opponent process theory of color vision
  92. Hubel and Wiesel
    studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
  93. Kohler
    developed the theory of isomorphism; studied insight in problem solving
  94. Melzack and Wall
    proposed gate theory of pain
  95. Stevens
    developed Stevens's law as an alternative to Fechner's law
  96. Swets
    refined ROC curves in signal detection theory
  97. Wever and Bray
    developed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
  98. Yerkes and Dodson
    developed Yerkes-Dodson law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
  99. Breland and Breland
    studied instinctual drift
  100. Garcia
    studied taste-aversion learning
  101. Lorenz
    ethologist who studied unlearned, instinctual behaviors in the natural environment
  102. Pavlov
    developed the principles of classic conditioning
  103. Premack
    suggested the Premack principle: that a more-preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
  104. Rescorla
    performed experiments which showed that contiguity could not fully explain classical condtitioning; proposed the contingency theory of classical conditioning
  105. Thorndike
    proposed the law of effect; used puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats
  106. Tinberen
    ethologist who introduced experimental methods into field situations
  107. von Frisch
    ethologist who studied communication in honey bees
  108. Watson
    performed experiment on Little Albert showing that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning
  109. Wilson
    developed sociobiology
  110. Wolpe
    developed the method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias
  111. Bartlett
    investigated the role of schemata in memory; concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process
  112. Cattell
    divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan
  113. Collins and Loftus
    devised the spreading activation model of semantic memory
  114. Craik and Lockhart
    developed the levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory
  115. Ebbinghaus
    studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings
  116. Gardner
    proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important
  117. Guilford
    developed divergent thinking test to measure creativity
  118. Kahneman and Tversky
    investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic
  119. Loftus
    studied eyewitness memory
  120. Luchins
    used the water-jar problem to study the effect of mental sets on problem solving
  121. Macoby and Jacklin
    found support for gender differences in verbal ability
  122. McClelland and Rumelhart
    suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing
  123. Miller
    found that the capacity of short-term memory is 7 plus or minus 2 items
  124. Paivio
    proposed the dual-code hypothesis
  125. Smith, Shoben, and Rips
    devised the semantic feature-comparison model of semantic memory
  126. Spearman
    suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g
  127. Sperling
    studied the capacity of sensory memory using the partial-report method
  128. Sternberg
    proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: compnential, experiential, and contextual
  129. Thurstone
    used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities
  130. Whorf
    hypothesized that language determines how reality is perceived
Card Set
psych names cards.txt
130 names relevant to the psychology gre test. Not proofread, grabbed from another site.
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