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  1. This endogenous (internally produced) opiod neurotransmitter peptide is responsible for runner's high, fever reduction, and orgasm.
    Endorphin [Frontal lobe activation in Runner's High]
  2. This lipid neurotransmitter is used to treat pain, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. It can reduce eye pressure and increase appetite.
  3. In these disorders of the basal ganglia, endocanabinoids can adjust to control imbalanced tremors
    Huntington's & Parkinson's
  4. This stimulant is the most commonly used drug in the world
    caffeine [inconclusively addicting]
  5. caffiene (an antagonist) works to inhibit this nucleoside, which is energy controling, anti-arousal, and plays a role in promoting sleep.
    Adenosine [Adenosine levels increase with every hour of wakefulness]
  6. This soluble gas is used in Viagra. It increases relaxation in muscles and increases bloodflow to counteract detumescence.
    Nitric Oxide
  7. Using a stereotaxic devise, creating a ________ current kills the tissues--- axons, soma, etc. - of everything that passes through the region.
    (RF) Radio Frequency Lesion
  8. In animal research, a _______ apparatus holds the animal's head, maintains proper orientation, etc. It is sometimes used in human neuorsurgery.
  9. ________ methods = brain stains
  10. A _______ mouse or other animal has a targeted mutation.
  11. ______ magnetic stimulation can be used to create "temporary" lesions. Also may be useful in treating depression?
    Transcranial (TMS)
  12. A(n) ____ lesion stimulates neurons to death.
  13. A high resolution, very fast scanner that allows researchers to view the brain's regional metabolism.
    fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  14. Put your head in a donut shaped ring, an x-ray passes through your head, and other side has a detector that measures radioactivity that it detects.
    CT Scan (Computerized Tomography Scan)
  15. Using stereotaxic equipment, control animals usually receive ____________ lesions.
  16. Person receives a radioactive injection-- when the molecules decay they are detected by a computer.
    PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography Scan)
  17. A(n) ________ microscope has extreme powers of magnification (think "ant face").
  18. Destroying (not removing) a brain portion to study its effects
    experimental ablation
  19. _______ is where macroelectrodes read neuron cluster voltages in the brain.
    EEG (Electroencephalogram)
  20. the inability of the brain to make sense of or make use of some part of otherwise normal visual stimulus.
    visual agnosia (loss of knowledge)
  21. the inability to recognize familiar objects or faces.
    prosopagnosia (prosopon- face, agnosia- loss of knowledge)
  22. Specialized neurons that receive information from the senses
    sensory receptors
  23. process where information from the senses is received and changed to appropriate neural impulses
    transduction /transduced
  24. What portion of the brain's cerebral cortex is involved in vision?
    20% -- 1/5
  25. this is picked up by the eye to allow for sight
    electromagnetic radiation
  26. this is measured in wavelength... from 400-700; or blue-red
    visual spectrum
  27. This part of the eye causes neurons to fire
  28. this connects the eye to the CNS
    optic nerve
  29. eye movement - cooperation of both eyes to focus on something
    Vergence movement
  30. eye movement- a jumping focus on several points such as reading
    Saccodic movement
  31. eye movement - moving to maintain an image of something, such as a runner
    pursuit movement (moving things are seen better)
  32. Rods percieve _______ in the perephial
    (low) light
  33. Cones perceive _______ in the fovea (center) of the eye (black/white)
  34. when an eye perceives electromagnetic radiation and it is sent through the CNS/LGN to the visual cortex. This is an example of _______
  35. Rods and cones are _______ receptors
  36. A group of cells in the thalamus that is a relay medium between the retina and the visual cortex
    Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
  37. Processing area for visual information: retina > thalamus (LGN) > ___________?
    Primary visual cortex / V1 /Striate cortex
  38. This is an inherited genetic trait with inability to distinguish certain colors
    color blindness
  39. the ganglion cells are responsible for this color distortion -___________
    rebound effect
  40. when neurons affect neighbor neurons (inhibit them)
    Lateral inhibition
  41. where different neurons respond to different spatial orientations (such as the abe lincoln pixel slides)
    spatial filtering
  42. this is involved in depth perception
    Retinal disparity
  43. Impaired color vision (can be hemisphere based) (sharpness & accuity not affected)
    Cerebral achromatopsia
  44. the loss of concept or knowledge
  45. prosopagnosia is a symptom of _______
    visual agnosia
  46. This is responsible for facial recognition (in the temporal cortex) Damage to this causes impaired facial recognition. MAY BE CONNECTED with prosopagnosia and autism!
    Fusiform face area (FFA)
  47. In Fusiform face area FFA studies, what face cues did the FFA respond to?
    The real face, and an implied, blurred face. [also note greeble family learning study.]
  48. where the occipital and temporal lobe meet, it is activated by human body forms and body movement.
    Extrastriate body area (EBA)
  49. In the occipital lobe/cortex, this activates when processing scenes and backgrounds
    Parahippocampal place area (PPA)
  50. term for "hearing"
  51. Loss of ability to perceive or produce music
    Amusia (caused by damaged temporal cortex/gyrus)
  52. musical voice / emotionality
  53. Match the physical form (A) of soundwaves with the perceptual (B) form:
    A: Complexity, Amplitude, Frequency ;
    B: Pitch, Loudness, Timbre
    • Complexity - Timbre
    • Amplitude - Loudness
    • Frequency - Pitch
  54. a level of 110 of this measurement for more than one minute can cause hearing loss/damage
  55. term for ringing ears
  56. This helps collect soundwaves for hearing:
    The external ear (pinna)
  57. vibrations per second is measured in this
  58. 3 main stages of processing sound:
    1. Sound transmits into the auditory canal,
    2. sound hits the __________,
    3. then moves to the _________ which processes sound (this is a pathway of transduction!)
    • Ear drum (tympanic membrane);
    • Cochlea
  59. The shell shaped cochlea processes High/low? frequencies at the base, while it processes high/low? frequencies at the top
    • High;
    • Low
  60. ______ contains the recpetor cells for hearing
    Basilar membrane
  61. _______ bend to facilitate neuron firing
    Hair cells
  62. What is the cause of ringing ears?
    damage to the hair cells
  63. (probably important) Transduction pathway of hearing:

    1: _________ (in the hindbrain)
    2: ___________ _________ (midbrain)
    3: ______ _______ ________ __ __ _______(forebrain)
    4: __ _______ _______ (temporal cortex/forebrain)
    • 1:Medula
    • 2: inferior colliculus
    • 3: medial geniculate nucleus of the Thalamus
    • 4: A1 auditory cortex
  64. In the basilar membrane,
    high or low? frequency excites hair cells near the base, while high or low? excite hair cells near the top/apex
    • High
    • Low
  65. Cochlear implants are surgically placed in the ear to aid deaf people. This is relevant somehow to...
    place coding
  66. Are hair cells stimulated more by loud or soft sounds?
  67. localized perception of sound; sound hits one ear before it reaches the other
    Binaral differences in sound
  68. judgment of horizontal position of a sound, 0-340º
  69. cortex of where judgment of sound direction takes place
    in the dorsal auditory cortex
  70. cortex where judgment of what a sound is takes place
    in the ventral auditory cortex [responsible for amusia]
  71. not able to recognize a sound
    auditory agnosia
  72. Sound is ...(? missing notes).. which hemisphere and lobe?
    Left Hemisphere, temproal lobe
  73. processing of this starts sub-cortically
  74. harmony (2 voices at the same time) is processed in the _____ cortex
  75. Beat is processed in the Left or Right? ________ cortex
    Rhythmic patterns in the Left or Right? ________ cortex
    • Right auditory
    • Left auditory
    • [temporal lobe]
  76. professional muscians are said to have larger ________ (which first analyzes sound) than non-musical people!
    Heschls' gyrus
  77. How many people in the USA are hard of hearing?
    4% are deaf and hearing impaired
  78. The 3 types of deafness:
    • Conduction
    • Nerve/sensorineural
    • Central
  79. There is interference to the outer/ middle ear. the CNS is not damaged. this is ________ deafness
  80. This deafness involves impaired cochlea, hair cells, etc. It is not repairable with a hearing aid
    nerve/ sensorineural deafness
  81. This deafness is caused by brain lesions
    Central deafness
  82. Hair cells regrow in mamals?
    NO [also autotoxic drugs can cause deafness FYI]
  83. A condition where a person can read, speak, etc. but cannot understand speech. May involve Wernicke's Area
    word deafness
  84. understand the differences in recognition vs. comprehension, such as hearing foreign language
  85. Inside the ear there are _________ sacs that help us establish balance and spatial orientation
  86. inside each ear there are 3 ___________ which help in aiding balance and adjusting for head movement.
    semicircular canals
  87. vestibular senses provide...
    balance, orientation, eye and head adjusting and syncronizing, etc.
  88. the __________ nerve connects and recieves positional information
    vestibular nerve [ located in hind and midbrain]
  89. Things that can happen when the vestibular system is damaged:
    blurring, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, losing balance [such as during ear infections; "vertigo"]
  90. The term for the sum of all inner ear organs:
  91. When water enters the cavity of an ear, motion sickness can occur. This is called................
    Caloric Stimulation
  92. This may be an evolved automatic response to poison-like symptoms
    Motion sickness
  93. This may give a pilot the sensation of gaining altitude during flight if they tilt their head backwards
    False climb illusion
  94. These nerves extend to the cerebellum, including the medulla, pons, and spinal cord.
    Vestibular nerves
  95. Causes of this may include: swelling, decreased blood flow, and multiple sclerosis.
  96. Possibly caused by a tumor, this is characterized by a ringing in only one ear
    Acoustic neuroma
  97. These senses include touch, temperature, proprioception (AKA kinesthesia/body position) and pain.
  98. This involves recpetors in the joints, tendons, and muscles. It is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination. It is a sense of relative position in relation to other body parts.
  99. When your inner body senses: stomach aches, Dr H's gallbladder , and warm drinks
    organ senses
  100. pressure, vibrations, heating, cooling, and pain are stimuli for ...
  101. This is the largest organ
  102. These receptors respond to mechanical stimulation, like a pat on the back
  103. Mechanical receptor sensitivity is greater where?
    farther from the trunk; at the limbs & digits
  104. This cortex is more developed in people who use their skin more, like guitarists
    somatosensory cortex
  105. a sensory receptor that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain. (PAIN)
  106. a sensory receptor that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature
  107. Similar to the other pathways of transduction, Somatosensory's pathway is.... 1. _____ 2. ______ 3. Medulla 4. Thalamus 5. (somatosensory) cortex
    1. skin 2. spinal cord
  108. When association areas are damaged, it can sever sensation and perception associations. Knowing you are touching something, but not being able to perceive what it is, is called _____________
    tactile agnosia
  109. can the environment influence pain?
    maybe.. note references to soldiers reporting less pain on battlefield and more when returned home/base?
  110. Note that inflamation and swelling increases pain sensitivity to help alert and convince a person to not persue further damage
  111. (between the frontal and temporal lobe) This is considered a limbic related cortex (emotion). If damaged, it can lead to the loss of urges to smoke. (Wikipedia: Henry Gray in Gray's Anatomy is responsible for it being known as the Island of Reil.)
    Insula [Insular cortex]
  112. connected with the limbic system, this is involved with empathy, emotion, decision making, etc. When you wince seeing someone kicked in the groin.
    Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)
  113. The sensation of a limb when a limb is not present (amputation)
    Phantom limb
  114. pain is reduced endogenously by
  115. This chemical is found in spciy/hot foods like a pepper that stimulates the pain sensors
  116. morphine best prevents what kind of pain?
    small, dull aches
  117. histamines in the skin are in part responsible for this. (morphine and novocain use stimulate this as well)
  118. The two chemosenses
    Gustation and olfaction
  119. Taste is produced by chemicals in the saliva. List the 5 types of taste produced by the tounge:
    • Bitter
    • Sweet
    • Sour
    • Salty
    • Umami - MSG, meat taste
  120. The term used for the bumpy taste buds on the tounge. (there are 10,000 of them).
  121. The lack of a sense of smell
  122. the transduction pathway of gustation--
    1._______ 2. medulla 3.Thalamus 4.Primary Gustory Cortex (Frontal cortex) (Insula)
    cranial nerves
  123. In olfaction, molecular weight produces unique smells. Where are the smell receptor cells that process this kept?
    olfactory epithelium
  124. The olfactory bulb/system can produce a sense of want/do not want or good/bad based on smell because it is connected to......
    the limbic system (emotion control)
  125. This structure responds to pheromones in animals(?maybe humans?), like a dog to a fire hydrant.
    Vomeronasal organ (VNO)
  126. endorphins and other endogenous opioids are this neurotransmitter type:
  127. endocanabinoids etc. are a type of this:
  128. adenosine is a type of :
  129. nitric oxide is a ...
    soluble gas
Card Set:
2011-10-05 21:28:13
psu physiological psychology

PhysioPysch Test 2
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