In the basilar membrane,
high or low? frequency excites hair cells near the base, while high or low? excite hair cells near the top/apex
Cochlear implants are surgically placed in the ear to aid deaf people. This is relevant somehow to...
Are hair cells stimulated more by loud or soft sounds?
localized perception of sound; sound hits one ear before it reaches the other
Binaral differences in sound
judgment of horizontal position of a sound, 0-340º
cortex of where judgment of sound direction takes place
in the dorsal auditory cortex
cortex where judgment of what a sound is takes place
in the ventral auditory cortex [responsible for amusia]
not able to recognize a sound
Sound is ...(? missing notes).. which hemisphere and lobe?
Left Hemisphere, temproal lobe
processing of this starts sub-cortically
harmony (2 voices at the same time) is processed in the _____ cortex
Beat is processed in the Left or Right? ________ cortex
Rhythmic patterns in the Left or Right? ________ cortex
professional muscians are said to have larger ________ (which first analyzes sound) than non-musical people!
How many people in the USA are hard of hearing?
4% are deaf and hearing impaired
The 3 types of deafness:
There is interference to the outer/ middle ear. the CNS is not damaged. this is ________ deafness
This deafness involves impaired cochlea, hair cells, etc. It is not repairable with a hearing aid
nerve/ sensorineural deafness
This deafness is caused by brain lesions
Hair cells regrow in mamals?
NO [also autotoxic drugs can cause deafness FYI]
A condition where a person can read, speak, etc. but cannot understand speech. May involve Wernicke's Area
understand the differences in recognition vs. comprehension, such as hearing foreign language
Inside the ear there are _________ sacs that help us establish balance and spatial orientation
inside each ear there are 3 ___________ which help in aiding balance and adjusting for head movement.
vestibular senses provide...
balance, orientation, eye and head adjusting and syncronizing, etc.
the __________ nerve connects and recieves positional information
vestibular nerve [ located in hind and midbrain]
Things that can happen when the vestibular system is damaged:
blurring, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, losing balance [such as during ear infections; "vertigo"]
The term for the sum of all inner ear organs:
When water enters the cavity of an ear, motion sickness can occur. This is called................
This may be an evolved automatic response to poison-like symptoms
This may give a pilot the sensation of gaining altitude during flight if they tilt their head backwards
False climb illusion
These nerves extend to the cerebellum, including the medulla, pons, and spinal cord.
Causes of this may include: swelling, decreased blood flow, and multiple sclerosis.
Possibly caused by a tumor, this is characterized by a ringing in only one ear
These senses include touch, temperature, proprioception (AKA kinesthesia/body position) and pain.
This involves recpetors in the joints, tendons, and muscles. It is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination. It is a sense of relative position in relation to other body parts.
When your inner body senses: stomach aches, Dr H's gallbladder , and warm drinks
pressure, vibrations, heating, cooling, and pain are stimuli for ...
This is the largest organ
These receptors respond to mechanical stimulation, like a pat on the back
Mechanical receptor sensitivity is greater where?
farther from the trunk; at the limbs & digits
This cortex is more developed in people who use their skin more, like guitarists
a sensory receptor that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain. (PAIN)
a sensory receptor that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature
Similar to the other pathways of transduction, Somatosensory's pathway is.... 1. _____ 2. ______ 3. Medulla 4. Thalamus 5. (somatosensory) cortex
1. skin 2. spinal cord
When association areas are damaged, it can sever sensation and perception associations. Knowing you are touching something, but not being able to perceive what it is, is called _____________
can the environment influence pain?
maybe.. note references to soldiers reporting less pain on battlefield and more when returned home/base?
Note that inflamation and swelling increases pain sensitivity to help alert and convince a person to not persue further damage
(between the frontal and temporal lobe) This is considered a limbic related cortex (emotion). If damaged, it can lead to the loss of urges to smoke. (Wikipedia: Henry Gray in Gray's Anatomy is responsible for it being known as the Island of Reil.)
Insula [Insular cortex]
connected with the limbic system, this is involved with empathy, emotion, decision making, etc. When you wince seeing someone kicked in the groin.
Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)
The sensation of a limb when a limb is not present (amputation)
pain is reduced endogenously by
This chemical is found in spciy/hot foods like a pepper that stimulates the pain sensors
morphine best prevents what kind of pain?
small, dull aches
histamines in the skin are in part responsible for this. (morphine and novocain use stimulate this as well)
The two chemosenses
Gustation and olfaction
Taste is produced by chemicals in the saliva. List the 5 types of taste produced by the tounge:
Umami - MSG, meat taste
The term used for the bumpy taste buds on the tounge. (there are 10,000 of them).
The lack of a sense of smell
the transduction pathway of gustation--
1._______ 2. medulla 3.Thalamus 4.Primary Gustory Cortex (Frontal cortex) (Insula)
In olfaction, molecular weight produces unique smells. Where are the smell receptor cells that process this kept?
The olfactory bulb/system can produce a sense of want/do not want or good/bad based on smell because it is connected to......
the limbic system (emotion control)
This structure responds to pheromones in animals(?maybe humans?), like a dog to a fire hydrant.
Vomeronasal organ (VNO)
endorphins and other endogenous opioids are this neurotransmitter type: