Earth Science

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Earth Science
2011-09-26 21:37:00
Earth Science

Earth Science Test 1
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  1. What does geology mean in Greek?
    Earth (Geo) Discourse (Logos)
  2. What are the two types of geology?
    Physical and Historical
  3. What is Catastrophism?
    The belief that earth's landscapes were shaped primarily by great catastrophes
  4. Who published "Theory of Earth" in 1795 and what was it about?
    James Hutton about uniformitarianism
  5. What is uniformitarianism?
    The physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geological past. (the present is the key to the past)
  6. When was radioactivity discovered and what did it do?
    1896, and it helped to determine numerical dates for events in Earth's history
  7. About how old is the earth today?
    4.6 billion years
  8. What is Relative Dating?
    Events are placed in their proper order sequence without knowing their exact age in years
  9. What is the Law of Superposition?
    The youngest layer is on top and the oldest layer is on the bottom (Assuming nothing has turned the layers upside down)
  10. What is the Principle of Fossil Succession?
    Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content
  11. What is the overall goal of Science?
    To discover the underlying patterns in nature and then use this knowledge to make predictions about whould can or cannot be expected in the future
  12. What is the Scientific Method?
    • 1. Collect Facts
    • 2. Formulate Questions
    • 3. Test the Hypothesis
    • 4. Accept/Modify/Reject the Hypothesis
  13. What is the idea of Continental Drift?
    The continents moved about the face of the planet
  14. What is the Hydrosphere?
    The dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating to the land, and running back to the oceans
  15. How much of Earth is covered by the ocean?
    71% of Earth's Surface
  16. What is the Biosphere?
    All the life on Earth
  17. What is the Geosphere?
    The solid Earth beneath the atmosphere and oceans
  18. What are Earth's 4 Spheres?
    • 1. Atmosphere
    • 2. Biosphere
    • 3. Geosphere
    • 4. Hydrosphere
  19. What is the largest of Earth's 4 Spheres?
    The Geosphere
  20. What is Earth System Science?
    The study of earth as a system composed of numerous interacting parts
  21. What are closed systems?
    Systems that are self contained (like AC)
  22. What is Negative Feedback Mechanism?
    Work to maintain the system as it is
  23. What is positive feedback mechanism?
    Work to enhance or drive change in the system
  24. What is an interface?
    A common boundary where different parts of a system come in contact and interact
  25. What are Earth's 2 Energy Sources?
    • 1. The Sun (Exterior)
    • 2. Earth's Interior
  26. What is the Nebular Theory?
    The bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous roating cloud (the solar nebular)
  27. What did the formation mark the end of?
    The period of contraction and thus the end of gravitational heating
  28. What are planetesimals?
    Large asteroid-sized bodies that are the result of repeated collisions
  29. What are meterorites?
    The rocky and metallic pieces that remained in orbit after impact with the earth
  30. What are the 3 main regions of the ocean floor?
    • 1. The Continental Margins
    • 2. Deep-Ocean Basins
    • 3. Oceanic Ridges
  31. What is the Circum-Pacific Belt?
    The area around the pacific ocean.

    Includes the mountains of the western americas and continues into the western pacific in the form of volcanic island arcs
  32. What is the Hydrosphere made up of?
  33. What is the Atmosphere made up of?
  34. What is the Geosphere made up of?
  35. What is the Biosphere made up of?
    Plants and Animals
  36. What are meteroites made up of?
    • Iron-Nickel Alloy (iron)
    • Silicate Minerals (Stones)
    • Combination of Above (Stony-Iron)
  37. What are the sections of the upper mantle?
    • 1. Lithosphere
    • 2. Asthenosphere
    • 3. Transition Zone
  38. What are the sections of the core?
    • Outer Core (liquid)
    • Inner Core (solid)
  39. What are the sections of the crust?
    • Continental Curst
    • Oceanic Crust
  40. What is the oceanic crust made up of?
    Basalt (igneous)
  41. What is the continental cust made up of?
    Many different types of rocks
  42. How deep is the deepest mine and where is it?
    Western Deep Levels mine in South Africa, 2.5 miles deep
  43. What are the two groups of features of the continents?
    1. Extensive,Flat stable areas that have been eroded nearly to sea level

    2. Uplifted regions of deformed rocks that make up present day mountain belts
  44. What are the Continental Margins?
    the portion of the seafloor adjacent to major landmasses.
  45. Where are the deep ocean basins?
    Between the coninental margins and the oceanic ridges
  46. What are Igneous Rocks?
    Rocks formed from magma that cools and solidifies
  47. What are the three major groups of Rocks?
    • Igneous
    • Sedimentary
    • Metamorphic
  48. What minerals make up Granite?
    • light colored silicate minerals
    • quartz
    • feldspar
  49. What are Metamorphic Rocks made up of?
    They are produced from preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
  50. What are the different types of atoms?
    • 1. Protons
    • 2. Neutrons
    • 3. Electrons
  51. What defines the atomic number?
    The number of protons?
  52. How many protons does oxygen have?
    • Oxygen=8
    • Aluminum=13
    • Uranium=92
  53. What makes atoms happy? :)
    Being full, half full, or empty
  54. What is a cation?
    Positive charge
  55. What is a anion?
    Negative Charge

    NA has 11P and 11e-
    Chlorine has 17P and 17e-
    1st and 2nd energy level of both are filled
    3rd level: NA has 1e- and Cl has 7e-
    (Cl needs 1, NA needs to get rid of 1)
    They become ions
  57. How many known minerals are there?
    over 4000
  58. What are the important minerals that make up the earth? (8)
    • 1. Silicon (Si)
    • 2. Oxygen (O)
    • 3. Aluminum (Al)
    • 4. Iron (Fe)
    • 5. Magnesium (Mg)
    • 6. Calcium (Ca)
    • 7. Sodium (Na)
    • 8. Potassium (K)
  59. What is most of the Earth made up of if you ignore the crust?
    Si, O, Fe, Mg
  60. What are Silicates
    Cation + SiO#
  61. What are Halides?
    cation +Cl-
  62. What are sulfides?
    cation + S-
  63. What are sulfates?
    cation + SO4
  64. What are carbonates?
    cation + CO3-
  65. What are Phosphates?
    Cation + PO4 -
  66. What are Native Elements?
    Pure Element
  67. What is Olivine made up of?
    (Fe, Mg) SiO4
  68. What is Biotite made up of?
    Fe+ Mg Rich forms of Mica
  69. What are the two main groups of silicates that crystallize from magma?
    • Fe + Mg Rich
    • Fe + Mg Poor
  70. What are the 4 Main Fe + Mg Poor Minerals:
    • 1. Quartz
    • 2. Potassium Feldspar (Orthoclase)
    • 3. Calcium Feldspar (Plagioclase)
    • 4. Muscovite (K rich form of Mica)
  71. What is Bowens Reaction Series? (Discontinuous Series)
    • -Olivine (1200C)
    • -Pyroxene
    • -Amphibole
    • -Biotite
    • -K-Feldspar
    • -Muscovite
    • -Quartz (600 C)
  72. What is MOH's scale of Mineral Hardness (soft to hard)

    *The guys can flirt and other quaint things can do*
    • 1. Talc
    • 2. Gypsium
    • 3. Calcite
    • 4. Fluorite
    • 5. Apatite
    • 6. Orthoclase
    • 7. Quartz
    • 8. Topaz
    • 9. Corundum
    • 10. Diamond
  73. What are some common hardness items?
    • - Fingernails =2.5
    • - Glass = 5.5
    • - Copper Penny = 3
    • - Steel File = 6-6.5
  74. What is the Specific Gravity Formula?
    Specific Gravity = (Weight in Air)/(Weight in Air - Weight in Water)
  75. What is the Specific Gravity of Halite?
    • Halite=2.2
    • Orthoclase=2.6
    • Quartz=2.7
    • Biotite=3
    • Apatite=3.2
    • Zircon=4.5
    • Pyrite=5
  76. What is Porphyritic?
    Rocks formed by slow cooling followed by rapid cooling?
  77. What are some classifications of Felsic Igneous Rock?
    • Felspar + Silica Rich
    • Quartz, K-Feldspar, Plagioclase
  78. What are Minerals?
    any naturally occuring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and a well-defined chemical composition
  79. What is a Rock?
    any solid mass of mineral, or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet
  80. What is a covalent bond?
    A chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms
  81. What is a Metallic Bond?
    The Valence Electrons are free to move from one atom to another
  82. What is the mass number of an atom?
    The total number of protons an neutrons
  83. What is Radioactive Decay?
    Unstable isotopes radiates energy and emit particles
  84. What is Crystallization?
    Molecules and/or ions chemically bond to form an orderly internal structure
  85. What is the Hardness of Diamond??
    • Diamond=10
    • Corundum=9
    • Topaz=8
    • Quartz=7
    • Orthoclase=6
    • Apatite=5
    • Fluorite=4
    • Calcite=3
    • Gypsum=2
    • Talc=1
  86. What is Olivine made up of?
    (Mg, Fe)2 SiO4
  87. What are 2 common members of the potassium felspar group?
    Orthoclase and Microcline
  88. What is in the Plagioclase Feldspar Group?
    Sodium and Calcium ions
  89. Describe Quartz
    • - Made up of Silicon and Oxygen
    • - Hard, resistant to weathering
  90. Describe Olivine
    • High Temp Silicate Minerals
    • Small Rounded Crystals
    • Constitue up to 50% of the Earth's upper mantle
  91. Describe Biotite
    • Iron Rich
    • Common in Igneous Rocks
  92. What Rock Types are Felsic?
    • Granite
    • Rhyolite
  93. What Rock types are Mafic?
    • Gabbro
    • Basalt
  94. What Rock types are Ultramafic
    • Peridotite
    • Komatite
  95. What are Rock Types are Intermediate (Between Felsic and Mafic)
    • Diorite
    • Andesite
  96. What are the 3 factors that influence the texture of igneous rocks?
    • 1. That rate at which molten rock cools
    • 2. The amount of silica present
    • 3. The amount of dissolved gases in the magma
  97. What are the 6 different Types of Igneous Textures? (and describe)
    • 1. Aphanitic - fine grained
    • 2. Phaneritic - coarse grained
    • 3. Porphyritic - large crystals embedded in small crystals
    • 4. Glassy
    • 5. Pyroclastic - rock fragments
    • 6. Pegmatitic - large crystals
  98. Describe Granite...
    grain type
    made of)
    • Intrusive
    • Coarse-Medium Grain
    • Felsic
    • Made of Quartz, K- Feldspar, plagioclase
  99. Describe Rhyolite...
    grain type
    made of)
    • Extrusive
    • Fine Grained
    • Felsic
    • Quartz, K-Feldspar, Plagioclase
  100. Describe Gabbro
    grain type
    made of)
    • Intrusive
    • Coarse Grained
    • Mafic
    • Iron and Magnesium (pyroxene and olivine)
  101. Describe Basalt
    grain type
    made of)
    • Extrusive
    • Coarse Grained
    • Mafic
    • High in Iron, Magnesium, and Ca-rich feldspar
  102. How are basalt and gabbro different?
    Gabbro is intrusive, Basalt is extrusive
  103. How are Rhyolite and Granite Different?
    Granite is Intrusive, Rhyolite is Extrusive
  104. Describe Diorite/Andesite
    grain type
    made of)
    • Di-Intrusive, An=Extrusive
    • Fine Grained
    • 1/2 Feldspar, 1/2 Biotite
  105. Describe Dunite
    made of)
    • -Ultramafic
    • Over 90% olivine
    • thought to make up the very top of the earth's mantle
  106. Describe Peridotite
    made of)
    • Intrusive
    • Ultamafic
    • Mix of Olivine and Pyroxene
    • Thought to make up almost ALL of the earth's mantle
  107. Why is Olivine SO important?
    Because it makes up so much of the mantle
  108. What is the continental crust made up of?
    Granite or Granodiorite
  109. What is the Oceanic Crust made up of?
    Generally Gabbro (Basalt)
  110. What are the 7 Types of Physical Weathering?
    • Frost Wedging
    • Wind
    • Exfoliation
    • Water
    • Organisms
    • Thermal
    • Ice
  111. What are the 3 Types of Chemical Weathering?
    • Dissolution
    • Oxidation
    • Hydrolysis
  112. Which melts first... Light or Dark colored minerals?
    Light Colored
  113. What is the Mantle made up of?
    • Olivine and Pyroxene
    • Iron and Magnesium
  114. What are the 4 major types of igneous bodies?
    • Batholith
    • Pluton
    • Dike
    • Sill
  115. Describe Pluton
    • Largest Igneous Body
    • Coarse, Medium, and Porphyritic rocks
    • Highly Variable in Sizes and Shapes
  116. Describe Batholith
    • Largest Compilation of igneous bodies
    • many of many smaller plutons
    • coarse grained
  117. What is the volcanic equivalent of gabbro?
  118. Describe Breccia
    • Varying Sizes
    • Angular
    • Cemented Together
    • Rapid Short Transportation (landslides)
  119. Describe Conglomerates
    • Similar to Breccia but rounded
    • Form in stream beds, pebble beaches, etc
  120. Describe Sandstone
    • Cemented together by silica or carbonate
    • gritty
  121. Describe Shale
    • silt sized particles
    • splits along bedded planes
  122. Describe Limestone
    • Composed of Calcite
    • Fine Grained
    • White to dark Grey
    • Warm, shallow seas or reefs
  123. Describe Chert
    • Breaks Conchoidally
    • Many Differest Colors
    • Quartz Like
  124. Describe Gypsum
    • Calcium Sulfate
    • Shallow ocean basin or lake
  125. Describe Evaporites
    • Halite, Sylvite, Gypsum
    • Form from evaporation of sea water
  126. If sand were transported a long distance you would expect....
    the sand to contain abundant quartz
  127. Which of the following rocks has the lowest viscosity when in molten state?
    A. diorite
    B. rhyolite
    C. dacite
    D. tonalite
    E. basalt
    B. Rhyolite (Greatest)

    Andesite = intermediate
    basaltic = least
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. What is the hardness of Apatite?
  129. What is the volcanic quivalent of granite?
  130. A Rock just begins to melt when...
    at solidus