Meg Smith- Cognitive

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megsmith1818
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103381
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Meg Smith- Cognitive
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2011-09-22 16:05:21
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Cognitive exam
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Cog exam 2
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  1. Camillo Golgi
    • - brain tissue staining (Golgi staining)
    • - 1 of 4 fathers of psych
    • -Used silver nitrate to stimulate (potassium chloride mix)
  2. Santiago Ramon and Cajal
    • - Used Golgi stain on newborn brains
    • -Neuron Doctrine: signal transmits from the first neuron, continually down each neuron
  3. Neuron Characteristics
    • - A neuron not firing is at a constant rate of -70 mV
    • - Threshold is at -55mV
    • - Reaches action potential once it depolarizes beyond threshold
    • - Action potential maxes out at 40mV
    • - Re polarizes to refractory period (below -70mV), then back to resting state
  4. Basics of Neurons
    • - Transduction
    • -Sensory receptors (afferent)
    • 1. Sensory receptors
    • 2. Signal transduction
    • 3. Physiological response
  5. Visual Transduction
    • Environmental energy in retina and electrical energy when entering optic chiasm
    • -Signals meet, converge, and are directed
    • -Brain works contralaterally
  6. Corpus Callosum & Split Brain
    • Connects the left and right hemispheres, communication
    • - seizure occur when there is too much activity between the left and right hemispheres
  7. Gazzanigas Split Brain Studies
    • - Screen and imaging
    • - Visual cue: reach with left and reach with right
  8. Representations
    • 2 types of info:
    • 1. Linguistic: language based info
    • 2. Visuo-spatial: mental imagery

    Goal: good mapping of the world
  9. Method of Loci
    Mnemonic Device: using visual objects to represent parts of a story
  10. Wundt's Introspectionsim
    • Verbalizing a mental image
    • -how many windows do you have in your house?
  11. Behaviorism
    Mental images are unproven and mythological - Watson
  12. Early Measurement of Mental Imagery
    • -Performance scores: mentally rotating objects
    • - Mental rotation test
    • -Problems: visual imagery cannot be directly observed
  13. Memory
    • Mental imagery = elaboration
    • -Shepard: memory for pictures is high with 87% accuracy after 1 week
  14. Proposal
    Visual imagery = perception without originality stimulus
  15. Dual Code Theory (Paivio's Theory)
    • 2 independent codes to help elaboration
    • 1. Verbal: make verbal associations
    • 2. Visual: form mental images
    • Concrete v. Abstract words: abstract words are difficult to represent visually
    • *Association is a better predictor of learning
  16. Recall Study of Dual Code Theory
    Studied word pairs with high or low imagery potential, not told to use imagery

    Results: imagery used most for 2 high high words and least for low low pairs

    Implications: imagery potential = strong predictor of learning
  17. Early Attempt to Measure Imagery
    • - "F" task
    • - quickly view block letter on screen
    • - participants mentally trace outline of letter
    • - extreme top or bottom = "yes"
    • - not extreme top or bottom = "no"
  18. Brooks Measurement of Mental Imagery
    • 3 methods of responding:
    • 1. say yes or no
    • 2. tap left or right finger
    • 3. point to irregularly placed Ys and Ns on a page
    • Results: verbal responses greater than pointing to responses
    • Implications:
    • - Using 2 different systems = no selective interference
    • - Using the same system = selective interference
  19. Pylyshyn's Arguement on Mental Imagery v. Visual Perception
    Propositional Theory: all knowledge based on description, not sensory characteristics. No "pictures" in memory
  20. Kosslyn & Pomerantz's Counterarguement to Mental Imagery v. Visual Perception
    • Analog: processing visual images is analogous to perceptual processing
    • -Had 5 types of evidence
  21. 1. Map Scanning
    • -Participants study map, focus on one landmark and quickly switch focus to another
    • -Hypothesis: mental scanning time = time to visually scan picture
    • -Results: RT = linear function of distance between landmarks; same RTs for visual scans
  22. 2. Sequential v. Parallel Processing
    • -Phase 1: participants view pictures of faces or descriptions of faces
    • -Phase 2: participants view face; decide "same" or "different"
    • Hypothesis: fast match RT (parallel processing) for pictures of faces
    • Results: RT: Pictures of faces is less that description of faces
  23. 3a. Mental Transformations
    • -Participants view pairs of 3D objects and decide "same" or "different"
    • -Hypothesis: degree of orientation should affect RT to decide same or different
    • -Results: RT increased linearly with increases in degree of rotation
  24. 3b. Mental Transformations
    Participants view image of pulley system

    Hypothesis: if mental imagery is like visual perception, RT should increase as number of pulleys increases

    Results: RT increases linearly with number of pulleys
  25. 4. Interference
    • "F" Task
    • Hypothesis: imagery and perception simultaneously = selective interference

    Results: poor performance for visually based responses
  26. 5a. Visual Perception and Visual Imagery Activate the Same Brain Regions
    • Normal subjects in fMRI
    • - Shown patterns on a screen: occipital lobe activation

    • Imagine same pattern
    • - almost as much visual cortex activation
  27. 5b.Visual Neglect Patients
    • Right parietal damage
    • - contralateral effect
    • - Not aware of anything in left visual field
    • - Attention problem that results in visual deficits
    • -Perception is in retina, mental image is in LTM
  28. Evidentiary Task 1
    Imagine animal, then view animal part, decide if part belongs to animal

    • Results: faster RT for larger animals
    • -easy to isolate features
  29. Evidentiary Task 2
    Imagine 2 animals at the same time

    • Results: faster RT for elephant parts
    • - elephant is bigger in 'visual' field (easier to imagine features)
  30. Evidentiary Task 3
    Imagine giant fly and tiny elephant

    • Results: reverse effect
    • RT: fly less than the elephant
    • - relative and imagined size matter
  31. Evidentiary Task 4
    • Imagine animals with high and low association values and big and small features
    • Imagine group = form images
    • control group = not told to form mental image

    Results: faster RT for image group
  32. Limitations of Mental Imagery
    • 1. Mental image details are selective
    • 2. Reality monitoring
    • 3. Breakdown of Reality Monitoring
  33. Mental Image Details Are Selective
    Reinterpreting perceived figure better than reinterpreting imagined figure
  34. Reality Monitoring: distinguishing between internal and external sources
    • Cues help us make the distinction
    • -Perceptual Info:
    • Spacial details
    • Uses context
    • Processed automatically
  35. Breakdown of Reality Monitoring: judgements of reality v. imagination can be poor
    • False/Illusory Memory
    • -Causes:
    • long delays
    • repeated suggestions
    • mental rehearsal
    • guided imagery
    • -Example:
    • eye witness testimony
    • 9/11 flashbulb memory
  36. Breakdown of Reality Monitoring: judgements of reality v. imagination can be poor (continued)
    • Hallucinations
    • Causes:
    • -Impaired discrimination btwn reality and imagination
    • -hallucination content relates to personality and present stressors
    • Example: Sz patients have enhanced imagery vividness
  37. Semantic Organization
    • -Organization = efficiency
    • -Meaning based
    • -Ex: Listing US states and how we do it (alphabetize, location)
  38. Semantic Networks
    • 1. Organization
    • 2. Activation
    • 3. Priming
  39. Organization
    • Linking semantically related concepts
    • -Concepts = NODES (provide complexity)
    • -Types of relationships = LINKS (provide info)
    • *types, characteristics, leads to etc.
  40. Activation
    how concepts are assessed
  41. Priming
    Decreased RT and increased accuracy based on prior exposure to related information
  42. Hierarchical Network Model
    • Categorization
    • -Superordinate (vehicles)
    • -Basic (SUV, truck, motorcycle)
    • -Subordinate (envoy, trailblazer, CRV)
    • Categorical info stored through associations
  43. Feature Comparison Model
    • Categorization = matching features
    • -Defining features are required
    • -Characteristic features are common
    • Stage 1: feature comparison
    • Stage 2: focus on defining features
  44. Spreading Activation Model
    • Ease of activation = degree of relatedness
    • - length of links: shorter lengths = stronger relationships
    • Priming : "giving" activation to related items
    • - activation lessens with distance
  45. Research on Testing
    • Some with semantic training, some with no training
    • Did better trained
    • Implications: Semantic networks organize knowledge efficiently
  46. Why are we good at semantic organization?
    Extracting meaning: semantic organization is helpful
  47. Why are be bad at semantic organization?
    Cant remember verbatim because it's rarely important to do so
  48. Ant Passage
    • We false alarm to the fact that info is consistent with expectations
    • We fill gaps with plausible information
  49. Schema
    • General knowledge structure/framework for organizing clusters of info
    • Ex: worldviews, occupations, social roles, scripts
  50. Bartlett and War of the Ghosts Story
    • When recalling ghost story, participants:
    • Omitted irrelevant info
    • Rationalized unacceptable issues
    • Changed details, content, and style to fit own culture/expectations
  51. 4 General Characteristics of Schemata
    • 1. Knowledge - our model of the world
    • 2. General - not specific to 1 situation
    • 3. Structured - include relationships about facts
    • 4. Comprehension - fill in incomplete info
  52. Balloon Passage
    • Results:
    • No context - 3.6 out of 14 ideas
    • Context before - 8 out of 14
    • Context after - 3.6
    • Implications:
    • Context improves comprehension
    • Schemata/context needed before new info is given
  53. What do schemata help us do?
    • Generate expectations
    • Make inferences
    • Comprehend written/spoken material

    • Schema = skeletal structure
    • Default knowledge
  54. Scripts
    • Sequences of events for routine activities
    • Components:
    • Standard roles
    • Props/objects
    • Conditions
    • Results
    • Script organization possibilities:
    • Temporal ordering
    • Centrality/importance of events
  55. Studies on scripts show...
    • Retrieval results: temporal order >order of importance
    • Implications: temporal order accesses all events
  56. Perceptual Symbols Model
    • Barsalou:
    • General semantic representations are amodal (without sensory input)
  57. Modal Representations
    • Incorporate perceptual information:
    • audition
    • gustation
    • vision
    • olfaction
    • mechanoreception
  58. Autobiographical Representations
    • Special case of perceptual symbols model (Rubin)
    • Representations of personal experiences:
    • Perceptual experiences
    • Language
    • Emotion
    • Implications: autobiographical memories are constructed
  59. Neurological Evidence on Autobiographical Representations (Cabeza & St. Jacques fMRI)
    • Retrieve personal memories for target word
    • >press button when memory is retrieved
    • >rate emotional intensity
  60. Categorization
    • Importance:
    • Decreased complexity
    • Increased object identification
    • Decreased need for constant learning
    • Increased good decisions on how to act
  61. Hierarchical Organization
    • Hierarchies = levels of abstraction
    • Superordinate: members share few attributes
    • Basic: Most informative, many shared attributes, good differentiation between categories
    • Subordinate: poor differentiation from other categories
  62. 3 Levels of Abstraction
    • 1. Classification in the basic categories
    • Fastest verification RTs
    • Exception - experts
    • 2. Prototype Theories
    • "Average" category shape acts as representative
    • 3. Superordinate v. Basic-Level
    • Fast verification RT for basic and subordinate forms

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