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How did the Peace of Augsburg settle the German rulers religious differences?
- Allowing each prince to determine the religion of his subjects brought peace temporarily.
- Germany allowed Lutherans and Catholics, but not Calvinists.
- German princes watch each other suspiciously.
What happened when Lutheran and Catholic princes felt threatened by Calvinism?
Preotestant League vs. Catholic League
Why did German Protestant Princes challenge Ferrdinand II?
- He was untrusted as a foreigner and Catholic.
- He closed some Protestant churces -> Protestant revolts -> Ferdinand sent army to crush revolt.
What was the Thirty Years' War?
- Over religion and territory; and for power among ruling families of Europ.
- Divided in half by: Hapsburg triumphs and defeats.
How did the Hapsburgs triumph in the first 12 years?
- Austria/Spain crushed Protestant armies.
- Put down Czech uprising and German supporters.
- Ferdinand paid army by allowing them to plunder German towns.
How did the tide of the war change in 1630?
Gustavus Adolphus (Swede) drove Hapsburg armies out of Germany.
How did Richelieu and Mazarin dominate the remaining years of the war?
- Feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants.
- Didn't want anyone else to have as much power as the France king.
- Sent French troops to aid Germany and Sweden Protestants.
What damage was caused by the war?
- Population dropped: 20 million to 16 million.
- Trade and agriculture disrupted.
- Germany's economy destroyed.
- Prevented unification until 1800s.
What were the terms of the Peace of Westphalia?
- Weakened Spain and Austria.
- Strengthened France with German land.
- Freed German princes from Holy Roman Empire.
- Ended religious wars in Europe.
- Created new peace negotiation process involving all paritcipants.
What was the most important result of the war?
The modern state system of equal and independent states was created.
How was the economy of central Europe different from that of western Europe?
- Serfs moved to towns to join middle-class.
- Aided developement of commercial revolution and capitalism.
Why did landowning aristocrats in central Europe restrict serfs' freedom?
Wanted serfs to produce large harvests for big profits.
How did landowning nobles in central Europe block the developement of strong kings?
- Nobles elected king and limited his power.
- Allowed no income, no law courts, no standing army.
- No unified state.
How was the Holy Roman Empire seriously weakened?
Lost obedience of German states.
What happened after a power vacuum was left in central Europe?
German families attempted to become absolute rulers.
What steps did the Hapsburgs of Austria take to become absolute monarchs?
- Reconquered Bohemia -> crushed Protestantism and installed Czech nobility loyal to Hapsburgs.
- Centralized government and standing army.
- Took Hungary from Ottoman Empire.
Why was Charles VI's empire difficult to rule?
Diversity within the borders: Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, Germans.
How did the Hapsburgs make sure the continued to rule all those lands?
Charles VI pressured European rulers to recognize Maria Theresa as his heir.
What threatened to upset central Europe's delicate balance of power?
- Prussia's rise to power in the late 1600s.
- The Hohenzollerns had ambitions.
How did Frederick Wiliam ensure safety in Brandenburg?
Created a strong army.
How did the Great Elector move toward absolute monarchy?
- Built an army of 80,000 men.
- Introduced permanent taxation.
- Called themselves kings.
- Weakened the representative assemblies of their territories.
Why was Prussia a highly militarized society?
King Frederick William I bought the Junkers cooperation by allowing them to be officers in his army.
What did Frederick the Great do when he came to the throne?
- Followed his father's military policies.
- Encouraged religious toleration and legal reform.
How did Frederick's desire for Silesia lead to the War of the Austrian succession?
- Frederick wanted Silesia because it produced iron ore, textiles, and food products.
- He underestimated Maria Theresa's strength.
How did Prussia become a major European power?
Won Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
How did Maria Theresa's alliance with France cause a diplomatic revolution?
- Austria and Prussia switched allies.
- Russia began playing a role in European affairs.
What was the Seven Years' War?
- Every great European power was involved.
- Territorial situation did not change in Europe.
How were the British the real victors of the war?
- Gained France's colonies in North America.
- Gained sole economic domination of India.