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Origins of management
- ***Egyptians: POC; for construction of pyramids; requests in writing, decision making after consulting staff for advice (4k-2k BC)
- Sun Tzu: Strategy; identifying and attacking opponent's weaknesses
- Xenophon: Management as separate art
- Sumerians: C; Written record keeping
Why we need managers today
- When so many people were being employed under the same roof during the Industrial Revolution, companies began to have a strong need for order and structure.
- Managers to organize large groups, work w/employees, make good decisions
Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor)
- Thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job.
- Goal: Systematic study to find the "One Best" way of doing each task
Who was Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)?
- Father of Scientific Management.
- Began career as worker at Midvale Steel Comp.
- Worked at improving output;
Four Principles of Scientific Management
- 1. Develop science for each man's work and use new method which replaces old rule of thumb
- 2. Scientifically select,train, teach, and develop the workman, unlike his independent past.
- 3. Cooperate hardily w/workers; ensure all work being done is in accordance with principles of science being developed.
- 4. Equal division of work and responsibility between management and workmen. Management takes over some of the more complicated jobs for the workers.
When workers deliberately slow their work output
A group member whose work pace is significantly faster then the normal pace in his or her group
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (Motion Studies)
- Motion Studies to simplify work:
- Frank: MIT, began career as apprentice bricklayer, studied various approaches to bricklaying and began eliminating the unnecessary motions; raised productivity by 2Xs
- Lillian: first woman to receive PhD in Indust. Tech.; concerned with the human side of work; one of first contributors to Ind. Tech.
Breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive.
Timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs.
Who was Henry Gantt?
- First a protege and then an assoc. of Frederick Taylor;
- Best Known for the Gantt Chart:
- Significant contributions to management with repsect to the training and development of workers.
- One of the first to strongly recomment that companies train and develop their workers
- Graphic chart that shows which tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project or task.
- Shows the tasks and the certain time frames to complete them.
Who was Max Weber?
- German sociologist who presented a new way to run entire organizations.
- First proposed the idea or bureaucratic organizations; described bureaucracy as "the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge".
- The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, experience.
- People in the bureaucracy would lead by virtue of their rational-legan authority (knowledge, expertise, or experience)
Who was Henri Fayol?
Contributor to the field of management like Frederick Taylor.