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The earliest studies of __ and __ probably dealt with what?
Early healers relied on __ and __.
Later, __ were used to treat certain ailments.
Eventually, the stage was set for the development of __ with standardized terms in __ and __.
- anatomy and physiology
- treating illnesses and injuries
- superstitions and magic
- Greek and latin
Anatomy and Physiology are ___, meaning one depends on the other. Which depends on which?
- closely interrelated
- Physiology depends on anatomy
Anatomy deals with what?
Physiology deals with what?
- anatomy: structure (morphology) of the body and its parts
- phys: functions
Anatomists rely on __ while physiologists employ __.
True or False:
The functional role of construction depends on how it is parted.
- the functional role of a part depends on how it is constructed
Fundamental __ are traits shared by all organisms.
characteristics of life
Characteristics of life include ___ (10)___.
Taken together, these ten characteristics constitute __.
- movenent (internal and gross)
- responsiveness (reaction to internal/external change)
- growth (increase in size w/o changing the shape)
- reproduction (new organisms and new cells)
- respiration (use of O2/ removal of CO2)
- digestion (breakdown of food into simpler forms)
- absorption (movement of substances through membranes and into fluids)
- circulation (movement w/in body fluids)
- assimilation (changing nutrients into chemically different forms)
- excretion (removal of metabolic wastes)
Maintenance of Life:
1) Requirements of Organisms
- Life depends on the availability of the following: _ (5)_
2) Both the __ and __ of these factors are important.
- 1) Water
- 2) food
- 3) heat
- 4) pressure
- 5) oxygen
- quality and quantity
What is homeostasis?
maintenance of a stable internal environment
Whta is metabolism?
process by which the body obtains and uses energy
__ mechanisms regulate __ in a manner similar to the functioning of a home heating thermostat.
Another __ mechanism employs __ to regulate __.
- body temperature
- pressure sensitive receptors
- blood pressure
Many of the body's homeostatic controls are ___.
Each individual uses homeostatic mechanisms to keep body levels within a __; __ can vary from one individual to the next.
- negative feedback mechanisms
- normal range x2
What are the levels of organizations?
- organ systems
__ are the simplest level, and two or more of these comprise a __.
__ are large, biologically important molecules inside cells.
__ are aggregates of _ used to carry out a specific function in the cell.
__ are the basic living unit, and groups of them functioning together create __, which form __, which function together as __, which also function together to make an __.
- organ systems
The __ is the sum of its parts and these parts can be studied at a variety of levels of organization.
Why do we need water?
required for metabolic reactions, for transport of substances, for temp. regulation
Why do we need food?
nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter
Why do we need oxygen?
used in releasing energy from nutrients
Why do we need heat?
a byproduct of metabolism; its presence governs the rate at which reactions occur
Why do we need pressure?
force required to facilitate movement of air or fluids